Avskiljning av ammoniumkväve och fosfatfosfor i reaktiva filtermaterial : skak- och kolonnförsök
In Sweden more than 400 000 private households have not yet sufficient wastewater purification. These effluent is considered as an increasing problem and many onsite purification methods have been studied. In this investigation, the method of reactive bed filters have been tested by column and batch experiments. Five different kinds of filter materials with reactive surfaces have been studied concerning their capacity to absorb ammonium and phosphorus from wastewater. The materials that were examined are Filtra N, wollastonite Filtra P, blast furnace slag and Polonite®. The first two materials were examined for their capacity to remove ammonium, and the others for their phosphorus removal capacity.
Ten columns were used, two for each material. A synthetic solution with the ammonium and phosphate concentration similar to that of domestic wastewater (NH4-N 30 mg/l; PO4-P 5 mg/l) were pumped to the columns under two flow regimes. Five columns were continuously saturated with solution and the other five columns were saturated under three one hour periods a day The solution was pumped three times a day to the columns at a volume equal to the pore volume of each material. The objective of the batch experiment was to find out how variations in pH-value and concentration of the nutrients influenced the sorption capacity of the materials. The result was then used for modelling in the computer program Visual Minteq to determine the probability of precipitation of known compounds.
Results from the column experiment showed that sorption of phosphorus in both saturated columns and intermittently saturated columns were 96 % or more for blast furnace slag, Filtra P and Polonite®. Filtra N showed the best ammonium sorption with 92 %. Sorption of ammonium was much better in periodically saturated columns for the material wollastonite. The wollastonite used in this experiment showed a higher phosphorus sorption capacity than expected. A possible explanation could be that the easy weathering of Ca-silicate compounds favoured the sorption of phosphorus. Results from Visual Minteq modelling showed that the probability of calcite formation in Filtra P and Polonite® are very likely. The two materials had high pH-values and the calcite was most likely formed at values of pH > 10. Hydroxyapatite is the most common precipitation when phosphorus sorption occurs and is suggested to be formed in wollastonite.
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