Kollektivtrafikens bidrag till stadens hållbara tillgänglighet - En analys av restidskvoter i Malmö
Sammanfattning: In a sustainable society accessibility is vital and should be provided for everyone, regardless of their background. There are different components within accessibility as a concept. One of these components is transport, which has to do with the ability to transport to different destinations with minimum sacrifice. This can be achieved with public transport, because it’s available for everyone and can be a sustainable transportation method. A possible way to measure the quality of the public transport is by analyzing the travel time ratio. A recent study in Stockholm (Stockholms Lokaltrafik, referred in Trafikverket 2012) found a connection between travel time ration and the share of passengers traveling by public transport. This connection was also confirmed in a different study made by Olausson and Solvin (2019), which found the same connection. There are different methods to calculate the travel time ratio. In this study one method will be presented. The method will be easy to apply and at the same time will justly describe travel time ratio. The method will then be applied in Malmo with the help of Google Maps and journey planner as well as a survey of travel means will be used. 15 different zones of Malmö will be analyzed respectively. A travel time ratio index will be maintained to study the connection between the accessibility and travel time ratio. The results will be presented in graphs and analyzed. The results in this study shows a connection between travel time ratio and the share of passengers traveling by public transport. The higher the travel time ratio the less the share of passengers. Though the R^2- value is low due to having two cases that differs from the rest. These two cases have a high value in the study due to the fact that the total number of studied cases are relatively few. The reason of having few cases is because of the low number of participants in the survey. Analysis of the cases that differ shows other factors are the reasons of why they have very much lower share of passengers in comparison to the rest cases. The study also found a connection between the average travel time ratio for each zone and the means of travel. Zones with travel time ratio higher than 2,0 had much higher percentage of car usage. On the contrast zones with lower travel time ratio lower than 2,0 had an even distribution of travel means and car usage wasn’t the dominant travel mean. The R^2- value was also found to be lower due to having two zones that differ from the rest. Other factors were found to be the reason. A connection between travel time ratio and accessibility was also found in the study. A comparison between the index of travel time ratio with accessibility index has generally shown that zones in central Malmö had better results in both indexes. At the same time zones in the outer parts of Malmo tend to have lower results in index of travel time ratio and the accessibility index.
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