Effekt av medelhavskost i jämförelse med habituell kost eller low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet på mängden Faecalibacterium prausnitzii i tarmmikrobiotan
Sammanfattning: AbstractTitle: Effect of Mediterranean diet compared to habitual diet or low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet on the amount of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal microbiota.Author: Louice Spjuth and Jessica Hansson CatenotSupervisor: Klara SjögrenExaminer: Anna WinkvistProgramme: Programme in dietetics, 180/240 ECTSType of paper: Bachelor’s thesis in clinical nutrition, 15 higher education creditsDate: May 25, 2021Background: Mediterranean diet consists of a high proportion of fruits, vegetables, fish, seafoods, white meats, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. The diet has the potential to change the intestinal microbiota with an increased microbial richness and an increase in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. The bacteria is one of the most important components in the intestinal microbiota because it is used as an indicator of the human health due to the fact that the inflammatory processes in the body benefits of the presence of the bacteria.Objective: To investigate the effect of Mediterranean diet compared to habitual diet or low fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet on the amount of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal microbiota. The population consisted of adults of which some were healthy individuals or suffered from metabolic syndrome, overweight or obesity. The outcome was the amount of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal microbiota.Search strategy: Literature searches were conducted in PubMed and Scopus. MeSH-terms were “Diets, Mediterranean”, “Faecalibacterium” and free keywords were “Mediterranean Diet”, Mediterranean Diets”, “Mediterranean Cuisine”, “Fusobacterium prausnitzii”, “Faecalibacterium prausnitzii”, “Random', Blind'”. The terms and search words were used in different combinations.Selection criteria: Inclusion’s criteria were RCT, studies on humans written in English or Swedish and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii as outcome. The population were adults both women and men. The intervention had to be Mediterranean diet. Data collection and analysis: The literature search resulted in eight studies, of which two duplicates. Two examiners read individually title and abstract and selected four articles based on inclusion’s criteria that were read in full text. After reading in full text two articles were left. They were reviewed according to the SBU´s template for quality of randomized studies. An overall assessment according to GRADE was performed.Main results: The total study population consisted of 321 people. 138 individuals with metabolic syndrome, 101 without metabolic syndrome, 82 individuals with BMI ≥ 24 and the rest were healthy. The two studies were graded individually as moderate and high risk of bias. One study indicated increases of different groups of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii with Mediterranean diet. However, there were no concrete values for quantity regarding the increases. The other study did not indicate the comparison between the intervention group and the control group. The GRADE level of evidence resulted in downgrading with four steps to no scientific evidence.Conclusions: There is no evidence on the effect of Mediterranean diet compared to habitual diet or LFHCC diet on the amount of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii for the study population of the review. According to Meslier et al. there is some evidence that different groups of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii increases significantly after consuming a Mediterranean diet compared to habitual diet. Further scientific research is required on different population groups regarding BMI, different diseases and food cultures for transmissibility from a global perspective.
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