Genetic relationships and origin of the Ädelfors gold deposits in Southeastern Sweden
Sammanfattning: Ädelfors is situated ca 17 km east of Vetlanda, Jönköping County, in the N-S striking Trans-scandinavian igneous belt and is a part of the NE-SW striking 1.83-1.82 Ga Oskarshamn-Jönköping belt emplaced during a continental subduction towards the Svecofennian continental margin. The continental arc hosts the 1.83 Ga metasedimentary Vetlanda supergroup composed of foliated metagreywacke, metasandstone and metaconglomerate. The sequence is intercalated by mafic and felsic volcanites and hosts the Cu-Au-Fe-mines at Ädelfors. Ädelfors mining field consists of ca 330 mineralized quartz veins hosting both copper, gold and iron. The iron mines Nilsson’s iron mine (NFE) and Fe-mine (FE), the copper mine Kamelen (KM) and the gold mines Brånad’s mine (BR), Adolf Fredrik’s mine (AF), Old Kron mine (GKR), Old Kolhag’s mine (GKO), Thörn mine (TH), New Galon mine (NG), Stenborg’s mine (ST), Tysk mine (TG), Hällaskallen (HS) and Fridhem (FR) have been investigated to deduce a possible genetic relation between the veins and their origin. Sulfur isotope ratios have also been conducted on pyrite from KM, AF and FE. The veins can stucturally be divided into several groups. AF, GKR, ST, NG, TH and possibly NFE are striking 10-70° with a dip of 55-70°. BR, GKO and KM are striking 110-140° with a dip of 80-90° whereas TG and HS strike 90-110° dipping 85°. Fridhem, being distal to the other mines, strikes 70° and dips 80°. A chlorite-quartz-biotite-sericite-rich metapelite hosts the veins in all localities except; FR where a layered, beresitizised felsic volcanite rich in plagioclase, sericite, biotite and quartz hosts disseminated pyrite; and NFE, HS and NG which are hosted by a mafic tuffite. Quartz veins are mainly milky and equigranular, exceptions are FE with black pyrite-bearing quartz veins, cutting through the banded magnetite-metapelite and KM with its dynamically recrystallized quartz. Chlorite-, zeolite-, carbonate-, hematite-, amphibole-, kalifeldspar-, sericite-, biotite- and epidote alteration has been observed among the localities. The ore minerals are dominated by: fractured sub- to euhedral pyrite in cataclastic aggregates or selvage bands, interstitial chalcopyrite in pyrite, marcasite, pyrrhotite, gold and sporadic chalcopyrite diseased sphalerite and arsenopyrite. Previously not reported tetradymite, staurolite, galena and Ce-monazite have also been observed. Bismuthinite and tetradymite as inclusions in pyrite were observed in AF, GKR, FR and TG. Gold was observed in AF, BR, GKR and TG as inclusions in pyrite or quartz with a Au/Ag median of 78.41. HS distinguishes itself with Au/Ag ratios of 4.66-5.25. The trace element ratios in pyrite reveal two major types of pyrite. 1) found in FE and KM (pyrite type 1) with Co/Ni ratio of 10.94, Bi/Au of 1.79, Bi/S of 0.037, Au/Ag of 11.13, S/Se of 235.96 and As/S of 0.006. 2) found in NG, GKO, ST, TH, AF, NFE, HS, GKR, BR, FR, TG and as stringers in KM4 py1 pyrite type 2) with an average Co/Ni ratio of 5.26, Bi/Au of 1.95, Bi/S of 0.031, Au/Ag of 4.19, S/Se of 0 and As/S of 0. δ34S values strengthens this grouping as KM and FE has 1,3-2,6 ‰ and AF 3,6-3,8 ‰. The following geological interpretation has been concluded: The banded iron formation in FE is the earliest mineralization and was later fractured, emplacing quartz veins with pyrite of type 1. During this event, the Cu-vein in KM was also formed. A second generation of fractures, emplaced after the Småland granitoids formed, were filled with quartz and pyrite of type 2 at mesozonal depth. This is the main stage of gold mineralization and includes NG, GKO, ST, TH, AF, NFE, GKR, BR, FR and TG. During this event, pyrite of type 2 was added to KM, causing recrystallizing of the quartz. HS is possibly emplaced last or altered as it is more enriched in silver. Morphology, mineralogy, alterations, mineral chemistry and sulfur isotope signatures indicates an orogenic origin of the gold-rich quartz veins at Ädelfors as well as the copper-rich vein in KM.
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