Att välja färdsätt : En studie av de boendes resvanor och attityder samt av trafikens utsläpp i Hammarby Sjöstad
Sammanfattning: Since environmental concerns are currently considered more and more legitimate, an environmental debate is ongoing in many areas of society. Today, a worldwide urbanization is a fact, which makes it important to combine concepts like sustainability and the development of cities. Many areas can be included in such a discussion, and an example of that is urban transportation. The traveling habits of the denizens of cities are of great relevance to the development of a sustainable city, and in this report the traveling habits of residents in cities will be described and related to the current local transportation system. More specific, the aim of the report is to examine and to analyze traveling habits related to the inhabitants of the district of Hammarby Sjöstad in Stockholm and furthermore to describe the existing transportation system in the district and to account for its environmental impact. This analysis leads to a discussion about environmental issues related to energy consumption and to emissions in the transport sector, and a connection to the Hammarby model is being presented. The travel habits of the denizens have been examined by conducting a travel survey, which has been distributed to 250 households, where 72 responses have been collected. This material has then been analyzed quantitatively. The result shows that when it comes to the travels of the inhabitants made between Hammarby Sjöstad and other districts, most trips are made with a local tram, Tvärbanan. This transportation vessel can be considered to be the central means of transportation in the district, unlike bus traveling, which only makes up a small portion of the traveling. After the tram, traveling by car is the most common means of transportation to destinations outside Hammarby Sjöstad, with an average which seems to be lower than the national average. Concerning traveling made inside the district, over half of the trips are being made by foot, which can be explained by the limited size of Hammarby Sjöstad and by its long and narrow shape. Besides the travel survey a literature study has also been made with the goal of highlighting the environmental impact of the transport sector. Focus has been directed towards the main means of transportation in Stockholm, subway, tram, car and bus. This study shows that tram and subway are the most energy efficient means of transportation and preferable from an environmental standpoint thanks to their low emissions. The latter is also true for biogas buses, which do not emit any kind of carbon dioxide. The usage of cars and buses run by petrol or diesel is more problematic, with high energy consumption and emission levels. When this data is related to the result for the traveling survey, one can conclude that the tram Tvärbanan is a good alternative from an environmental standpoint and that its importance as main means of transportation in the district is positive. The traveling by car needs to decrease however, which will be a challenge considering how many of the respondents in the survey who stated they were dependent of their cars, but a transition to a greater usage of public transportation could be facilitated by an expanded departure frequency with few disruptions on the tram network or the bus services. Also, additional expansion of the public transportation could further decrease the usage of cars in the district.
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