Utveckling av marknader för avfallsbaserade resurser : En fallstudie på återanvändning av komplexa avfallsströmmar ur ett värdekedjeperspektiv
Sammanfattning: Immense amounts of waste are generated daily by our society, and the management of these streams is a critical societal function. Part of this work is reusing and recycling materials with attractive properties, which is also an imperative step towards circular material flows. Although, the reuse of waste-based resources entails a conflict between efficient use of resources and minimal environmental toxicity, which hampers the reuse. The labeling of a resource as waste also makes using or trading the resource problematic, both regarding regulations, but also concerns from the society regarding toxicity or quality. A way of increasing the reuse of waste streams is initiating and organizing a functioning trade with the material. This study aims at clarifying how new markets for waste base products can emerge and evolve. This aim is formulated as identifying the functions that needs to be fulfilled for a new market for waste-based products to function, and what can be done to fulfill these functions. The study is designed as a case study including four cases where waste in some way is put back to use through trade. This reuse is studied as a market, with buyers, seller and brokers encased in institutions. To expose the role of policy instruments in organizing waste-based markets, there is one specific policy instrument per case for which the effect is analyzed deeper. The main empirics has been collected through interviews with actors on the four case markets, aiming to identify typical events in the evolution of the markets, and what is perceived as important as of today. The case markets are residual sludge from biogas production and from waste water treatment being used as fertilizer, and the residual gravel from waste incineration in Sweden and Denmark being used as a construction material. On these markets, the degree of actual trade varies, as well as the maturity of the markets. By studying and comparing four markets for waste-based resources, and considering the perspectives from actors at different ends of the respective resources value chain, twelve market functions have been identified within three market components. The component institutions and networks contain functions not directly related to the supply- or demand-side of the markets but rather the legitimacy and authorization process, ability of the actors to identify with their roles in the value chain, and how certifications and actor-initiatives can form common grounds for actors in the value chain. In the component supply the waste producer’s responsibility and means of influence over the quality and quantity of the resource is identified as functions. Brokers might play a critical role and policy instruments is needed to increase the producers means of influencing the waste streams, and to regulate the use of the resource. In the component of demand marketing, systems for quality assertion, and niche management are identified as methods to fulfill critical functions. Waste based resources by nature appears as a secondary material flow in a process, and therefore it is not naturally integrated in the business model of any actor. The waste-label forces the resource to comply to rules and regulations perceived problematic, while buyer demands are perceived as unfairly promoting virgin resources and getting societal acceptance of the resource is an uphill battle. By studying the behaviors and needs of market actors, and the role of policy instruments during the course of market evolution, opportunities has been identified as to how policy instruments can fulfill the varying key market functions. For each of the identified functions, it is suggested how policy instruments can contribute, or help the market actors, to fulfill the function.
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