Biogaspotential hos våtmarksgräs

Detta är en Uppsats för yrkesexamina på avancerad nivå från Uppsala universitet/Institutionen för geovetenskaper

Sammanfattning:

BIOGAS POTENTIAL IN GRASSES FROM WETLANDS

Marvin Martins

The purpose of this study has been to survey wetlands that are suitable for mowing and to analyze the biogas potential in the harvested grasses. A preformed investigation showed that there are suitable wetlands, which can be harvestable, namely those mowed formerly in traditional haymaking. The practice of traditional haymaking is dying out in Sweden today but there are several good reasons why it should to be reconsidered. Nature- and cultural values are obvious, also the unutilized energy in the grass.

The suitable types of wetland that were specifically studied were the productive wetlands; meadow marshes and wet meadows. These wetlands are represented in the Swedish meadow- and pasture inventory database; (TUVA) and the Swedish national wetland inventory (VMI). Going through the databases showed that they largely complement each other. A geographical mapping was also carried out of wetlands in relation to areas of interest for the future establishment of biogas plants, so called “hotspots”. The geographical survey shows that there is ample amount of grass from wetlands within a 30-kilometer radius that can supplement the plants main substrate, manure. The map layer Swedish Ground Cover Data (SMD) together with GIS software was used to analyze the extent of overgrowth for the older VMI objects in Uppsala County, with the result that half of the VMI objects are no longer of interest. They have become either woodland and bogs, or reed beds.

There is very little information on wetland-grasses and methane production. Instead, a theory was evaluated regarding the possibility of transforming nutritional values for grass and sedges into biogas potentials. It was shown that this method does not capture the total biogas potential, but offers a minimum value that can be considered rather reliable. The energy transformation showed that late harvested grasses from wetlands has a biogas potential about 0, 21Nm3 methane/ (kg, DM) which is about 60 % of the biogas potential for grass-legume forages. The gas yield after 20 days is also relatively low. It could though be favorable to try grasses from wetlands in methane production, because co-digestion with these grasses and other suitable materials could produce a higher net gas yield for the plant, than using the materials solely by themselves. The derived biogas potential showed that there is at least 4, 4 GWh biogas energy in grasses from wetlands in Uppsala county at a low estimate. Harvesting costs were however shown to be too high in the present to achieve a plus result.

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