Närliggande Megalitgravar på västkusten - En jämförelse av grupper med närliggande gravar

Detta är en Kandidat-uppsats från

Författare: Roger Cederberg; [2020-11-19]

Nyckelord: Dolmens; Passage graves; Swedish west coast;

Sammanfattning: During studies of the megalithic graves on western Orust, I noticed that some of the graves werelocated in the vicinity of each other, in one case less than 100m. These graves must have some sort ofrelation to each other. They are built during a rather short period, a few hundred years, meaning thatthose who build the second and sometimes also a third grave, must have related to the first. Along theentire west cost of Sweden there are approximately 90 megalithic graves, dolmens and passage graves.There are 12 sites where two or in a few cases more than two graves can be seen as "close”. Close ishere defined as within a few hundred meters and in the same geographical context.This paper investigates possible similarities between these 12 groups. All graves were first visited tobe able to see how they are located in the landscape and how they relate to each other. Then most ofthe available information on the graves was studied to examine which type of grave it is. In somecases, the graves have been excavated giving more detailed information on the design of the grave.Sweden has 3 major areas with megalithic graves and a few graves located outside these areas. Theselocations are: The southern part of Sweden, primarily Skåne, Falbygden in southwestern Sweden andalong the west coast. Almost all graves, apart from the graves at the west coast, are built in limestonelandscapes. This gave the grave builders at the west coast different prerequisites for the gravescompared to the other areas. There are also indications that the megalithic grave builders on the westcoast were influenced from northern Jutland, while Skåne and Falbygden was influenced by theeastern part of present Denmark.It has been anticipated from the very start of the modern research in this field, that there is adevelopment in design of the megalithic graves from dolmens to passage graves. From simpleconstructions to larger and more complex graves. This is still the prevailing opinion in Denmark andthere is a detailed description of the different steps of the development, with dating partly based onC14. When C14 data for several graves in Sweden became available to the researchers, the surprisingresult was that dolmens and passage graves seems to be built during the same period, not in asequence. The C14 data are almost entirely from the limestone areas since bones are better preservedin that ground. The Swedish C14 data cannot be used to draw any conclusions regarding the west coastbuilding sequence. When analysing the groups of close graves on the west coast, it is thus not knownif dolmens and passage graves are built i sequence or in parallel.Analysis of the 12 groups shows that there are similarities between most of the groups. In 6 of thegroups there are one dolmen and one passage grave. The dolmen is closer to the (at that time) seashoreand the passage grave further inland and closer to possible farmland. In the other groups there areeither dolmens or passage graves. But there are in almost all cases notable differences in designbetween the graves in a pair. One is more advanced.It is not possible to draw any reliable conclusions regarding whether dolmens and passage graves werebuilt in sequence or in parallel on the west coast based on these results. The difference in design, withone smaller and one more advanced construction, may point at a development over time and that theywere built in sequence, but there are other possible explanations.

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