Massbalans av salt, kväve och fosfor i Dynestadsjön : En pilotstudie innefattande flödesmätningar och modellering

Detta är en Master-uppsats från Uppsala universitet/Institutionen för geovetenskaper

Sammanfattning: Dynestadsjön in Gamleby, Västervik municipality, has a history of collapses due to lack ofoxygen and high levels of salt, nitrogen and phosphorus. The high levels of nutrients havegiven rise to deteriorating living conditions for aquatic organisms. At the times when a collapsehas occurred, the upper water layer has become oxygen-free, which has led to a large part oflife in the water being lost. During the collapses, a powerful stench of sulfur was spread. Theaccumulated amounts of nutrients in the lake are assumed to have arisen due to the inflow ofbrackish water that occurs at regular intervals from Gamlebyviken. In recent years, numerousmeasures have been taken to reduce the nutrient load in the lake in order to improve its waterquality. A more innovative, and thus less proven measure, has been to pump water from thebottom layer of Dynestadsjön and use these volumes to irrigate crops. The volumes that arepumped contains significant amounts of the undesirable nutrients and thereby reduce thestress of the lake and its organisms. In order to perform this and other possible measures ona larger scale, it is necessary to be aware of the mass balance of salt and nutrients that existsin the lake. The aim of this study has been to map out the various flows that make up the massbalance and recreate it in the form of a simulation model in the programs MATLAB andSimulink. Also, an evaluation of the effects of the withdrawn volumes through pumping hasbeen performed and a discussion of what affects the inflow and outflow from Dynestadsjön'soutlet has been made.From the results it can be stated that the exchange of water that takes place at the lake's outletstrongly affects the mass balance of salt and nutrients in Dynestadsjön. It can also be statedthat the change in the amount of nutrients in the lake largely follows the same pattern as itsvolume. When inflow of brackish water from Gamlebyviken occurs, the amount of saltincreases and thus also the salinity. The runoff which contains a relatively low salinitycontributes to a diluting factor of salinity. This flow, on the other hand, supplies the lake withundesirable amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus as a result of a catchment area where theland use mainly consists of forestry and agriculture. The volumes extracted from the bottomlayer have contributed with a clearly reduced amount of nutrients relative to the startingamounts. The amounts that have been added to the layer through sedimentation and stratifyingis however unknown. High levels of salt are pumped out with the irrigation water. If theseamounts are enriched in the soil, it may cause problems in future harvests. The constant shiftsin the direction of flow at the outlet of Dynestadsjön are assumed to be due to so-called wateroscillation arising on the coast because of strong winds. The deep, long, narrow Gamlebyvikenwith its open inlet towards the sea is considered to have great potential for this phenomenonto occur. Variations in air pressure are also considered to affect the flow. For the time periodexamined, the variations of the air pressure have been evaluated. These variations correspondto large changes in the water level compared with the lake's location above sea level.

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