A package deal for the future: Vehicle-to-Grid combined with Mobility as a Service
Sammanfattning: The aim of this report is to evaluate how a future commercially owned fleet of self-driving electric vehicles (EV:s) would be able to provide power in order to avoid power exceedances in the power grid. Exceedances occur when network agreements between grid operating companies are exceeded. Exceedances are problematic, since they infer penalty fees for the paying company and make dimensioning the grid capacity more difficult for the supplying company. Capacity deficiency regarding the infrastructure of the grid is expected to increase, likely resulting in higher penalty fees. Integrating transport and power systems by using self-driving EV:s as Mobility as a Service combined with Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) technology is a potential solution for this problem. By modeling the EV-fleet as the New York City taxi fleet, a usage pattern deemed to resemble Mobility as a Service is created. An economic value for the V2G service is estimated by comparing the availability of the EV-fleet with local exceedances from Uppsala as well as regional occurring exceedances. The highest income during the first quarter of 2019 is 96 000 SEK for the whole fleet, or 1100 SEK per EV and hour-long exceedance. The time of exceedance and the power magnitude have to interplay with the availability of the EV-fleet in order to enable the system. The EV battery capacity highly impacts the system, but is concluded to not be a limiting factor due to market logic. Lastly, key features such as market formation as well as geographical and technical aspects are presented and discussed.
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