Elever med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning och NPF : En litteraturstudie med fokus på pedagogiska utmaningar och könsskillnader

Detta är en Magister-uppsats från Karlstads universitet/Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013)

Sammanfattning: This essay consists of a review of 34 scientific articles. The aim is to describe and compile current research about students with intellectual disability (ID) and neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD). The research questions focus on what challenges for learning and teaching the diagnoses imply, if there are any differences between girls and boys, and how the learning environment may be adapted for these students. The theoretical framework in this study consists of gender theory and social constructions. The results show that many students with ID also have diagnoses within NDD and that it affects the students’ executive, adaptive and social abilities. Girls show other symptoms than boys, but there tends to be fewer differences when the students have a severe ID. Girls are often quieter than boys and seem to have better social skills, while boys more frequently have challenging behaviour. The differences contribute to boys receiving more support in school and that they are referred to neuropsychiatric assessment at an earlier age. Girls however are more difficult to discover, which causes that girls often receive a diagnosis later than boys. Considerably more boys than girls get a diagnosis within NDD; research has for many years focused on boys’ symptoms, which has affected the formation of the diagnostic tools. The result shows that there is a huge need of adapting the education to each student’s ability and level of knowledge with help from a clear structure in a calm setting with few disturbances. The students need support in developing their executive, adaptive and social skills. Early interventions have shown to be of great importance. Regardless of cognitive level, pedagogues need to have high expectations on the students, encourage them and give them the support they need. The students may for example need longer time, rehearsal or that the exercises are divided into smaller parts. The result indicates that students with disabilities have the best opportunity for development when they are together with students in general education.

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