Valnötter sänker ett högt LDL-kolesterol hos vuxna individer - En systematisk översiktsartikel

Detta är en Kandidat-uppsats från Göteborgs universitet/Institutionen för medicin

Sammanfattning: Title: Walnuts lower a high level of LDL cholesterol in adults- A systematic reviewAuthor: Emma Albinsson and Jessica NyströmSupervisor: Frode SlindeExaminer: Anna WinkvistProgramme: Programme in dietetics, 180/240 ECTSType of paper: Bachelor’s thesis in clinical nutrition, 15 higher education creditsDate: May 22, 2018Background: The most common cause of death globally and nationally is cardiovasculardisease (CVD). A high low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol can contribute to thedevelopment of CVD. According to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012, anexchange of saturated to unsaturated fats may lower LDL cholesterol. Walnuts are rich inunsaturated fats but also contain other components can counteract the development of CVD.Objective: The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence whether ahigh level of LDL cholesterol can be lowered by an intake of walnuts.Search strategy: The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and Scopus.Keywords and MeSH terms like “walnut”, juglandaceae, “LDL” and lipoproteins were used.Snowballing was performed to find more relevant articles.Selection criteria: Inclusion criteria were RCT in English or Swedish, original articles,human studies, adults with a LDL cholesterol >3 mmol/L, intervention with walnuts andreported LDL cholesterol at baseline and at follow-up. The exclusion criteria were short-termstudies (shorter than three weeks), studies where participants had a significant weight loss (p<0,05) and when the intervention were walnuts other than in its natural form like walnut oil orwalnut extract in capsules.Data collection and analysis: Three RCT with crossover design were included and examinedfor quality according to the SBU's “Template for review of randomized trials”. One of thestudies was excluded due to low-moderate study quality. The evidence rating was carried outwith the University of Gothenburg's “Template foundation of the compiled evidence”according to GRADE.Main results: Both studies showed a significant decrease in LDL cholesterol, about -10%,during the intervention period with walnuts.Conclusions: There is high evidence (++++) that a high level of LDL cholesterol in adults islowered within six weeks by eating a walnut-rich diet compared to a diet without walnuts.Keywords: Walnuts, LDL, cholesterol, cardiovascular disease

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