Rydboholms engelska park : historik och vårdprogram

Detta är en L3-uppsats från SLU/Dept. of Urban and Rural Development

Sammanfattning: The estate of Rydboholm is situated in the municipality of Österåker, north of Stockholm, Sweden, and has a long history dating back to the 14th century. Rydboholm was the home of several families of great national importance, such as the Finsta and Vasa clans. However, since the 1500s, the noble family Brahe was the most influential; leaving its mark on the castle and surroundings. The gardens of Rydboholm consist of two parts; The first is from the baroque era, dating back to the 1660s, and the second is an immense landscape park completed around the year 1800 by Magnus Fredrik Brahe. During his travels through Europe, Magnus Fredrik Brahe was influenced by the new English-style gardens and he brought a large collection of literature on the subject back to Sweden, still kept in the library of Rydboholm. After an intense period at the royal court, Brahe withdrew to Rydboholm and began to design his own landscape garden on the northern shore of Kyrkfjärden. The area, a former meadowland, was well suited for an English style garden with a billowing topography overlooking the lake. Over time, a picturesque collection of monuments and buildings was erected, including a gothic style memorial temple, a hermitage and the "barrel of Diogenes". Many of them seem to be inspired by the philosophy and symbols of the freemasons. The monuments are of high artistic and architectural value, including works of the sculptors Johan Tobias Sergel and Johan Niclas Byström. Since the days of Magnus Fredrik Brahe, the grounds have changed little, although some new monuments were erected. These new items were gently inserted into the overall structure, leaving the original character intact. The historic paths, monuments and many of the original buildings continue to be preserved along with a large part of the original plant material. The grounds are today dominated by old and beautiful deciduous forests. The entire park is classified as a key habitat with important natural and recreational values and the estate of Rydboholm is an area of national interest because of its cultural values. In the late 19th century, the English park became a popular destination for visitors, who travelled there on summer excursions with steamboat from Stockholm. Although the boats are long gone, people continue to journey to Rydboholm today and the current owners of the estate, the Douglas family, are anxious to both preserve this public aspect of the park and to keep it in good condition. The conservation programme is designed to increase the knowledge about the park and provide a basis for decisions regarding the park's future. It proposes to reinstate English-style park concepts such as alternating open and closed outdoor rooms, clear sightlines and themed atmospheric environments. As the existing source material has several missing pieces, it is the very idea of the English park one should strive for, rather than to recreate specific historic details. Although, there are smaller parts that could also be suitable for reconstructions, based on old photos and drawings. However, the most important issue is the preservation of the park's character, allowing future alterations based on a lasting and prudent approach. The park has a permanence and gradual continuity that must be maintained. It should continue to be a living park, a park which is allowed to develop, and should be regarded as a living memorial of Rydboholm and its owners' long and rich history. As in preceding generations, the current owners desire to put their own imprint on the park in the form of new monuments and English-style 'surprises'. The park's main entrance is also of concern, as it is currently undefined and unwelcoming. These new additions should be made with great care and consideration for the existing environment; ideally keeping the same high level of artistic and architectural quality as the original buildings. The conservation programme posits that additions should connect to the spirit that the park was originally built in, while simultaneously reflecting 21th century ideals and design.

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