The effects of avian influenza on rural poultry farmers’ livelihood : a case study in Yen Son and Tan Binh communes - Tam Diep town - Ninh Binh province, Vietnam
Sammanfattning: The objective of this research was to investigate how HPAI (highly pathogenic avian influenza) shocks and threats affected livelihood assets of poultry farmers. The policies helping poultry farmers to mitigate HPAI at national and local levels and what livelihood strategies did the poultry farmers have in order to accommodate threats and outcomes by avian influenza in Yen Son and Tan Binh communes - Tam Diep town – Ninh Binh province? The study combined both qualitative and quantitative approaches in collecting data and information.The findings of this study find that poultry production can be considered as important for the livelihoods of rural people in Yen Son and Tan Binh communes. However, avian influenza broke out repeatedly in these two communes in four years of 2004, 2005, 2007 and early 2008. This affected both directly and indirectly, both negatively and positively the poultry farmers’ livelihood.Under the negative effects of avian influenza on poultry farmers’ livelihood, the government at national as well as local levels has had the culling programme to reduce the spread of avian influenza. Coupled with the culling programme is a compensation policy for the poultry farmers. According to the ideas of the farmers who kept ducks, the compensation levels of Ninh Binh province in 2004, 2005, and 2007 were too low as compared to the market value, but they agree with the compensation level in 2008. Nevertheless, the farmers who kept the local chicken show that the compensation levels of province in four years were not suitable for their local chicken. In addition, the poultry farmers did not get the compensation money of Ninh Binh province until after 6 months as from their poultry were culled. Despite that, the poultry farmers still reported sick birds to veterinary staffs. Besides, vaccination support policy and training courses have been implemented to help the poultry farmers in these two communes mitigate avian influenza in the long term. It appears that the compensation and vaccination supporting policies can be considered as helping poultry farmers in avian influenza mitigation, but the training courses have not contributed much.To cope with avian influenza shock in the short term, the poultry farmers get the assistance of both non- family and family network and came with temporary off- farm and non- farm employments such as working for Dong Giao farm, selling vegetable or construction work to earn a income for their living. To respond to avain influenza threats in the future, they have the risk management strategies decisions depending on household specific characteristics for example, many households stop poultry production and change to other activities. Nevertheless, the majority of households restarts poultry production, but makes technical changes and combines poultry production with other activities.
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