Riskfaktorer för postoperativt kompartmentsyndrom i nedre extremiteter samt förebyggande och konsekvenser

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Sammanfattning: Background: A surgical operation involves many risks and complications that can affect the patient’s health and recovery. Compartment syndrome in the lower extremity is a rare postoperative complication but it is a serious medical injury that causes unnecessary suffering such as disability, amputation, and even death. Due to its rarity, healthcare professionals’ awareness of this condition is very limited; leading to negative patient outcomes if the condition is not diagnosed and treated early. Aim: To describe risk factors for postoperative compartment syndrome in lower extremity as well as preventive measures and consequences. Method: A systematic mixed literature study was conducted according to Bettany-Saltikov’s working model. Both the quantitative and qualitative studies were chosen. Searches were performed in the PubMed and Cinahl databases. Results: Thirteen articles were reviewed and analyzed. The result in this study showed that the most common risk factors of compartment syndrome were the patient’s underlying diseases, obesity, intraoperative positioning, length of surgery, and complications during surgery. In addition, preventive measures emerged as well as the negative consequence of delayed diagnosis and treatment of compartment syndrome. Conclusion: The identified risk factors in the perioperative phase help nurses plan preventive measures to avoid the development of postoperative compartment syndrome and its negative consequences. Also, it is important to report and document these risk factors in the patient’s medical record to ensure continuity of patient care.

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