Ekologisk kompensation och habitatbanker i kommunalt planarbete
Sammanfattning: Biodiversity offsets and habitat banking in municipal planning Biodiversity offsetting is used to prevent loss of natural capital in connection with new developments. Biodiversity offsetting, which is based on the polluter pay-principle, means that those who cause loss or damage to nature values such as species, habitats or ecosystem services should make up for it by creating or ensuring corresponding values at another location, to make sure that no net loss of nature values occurs. Biodiversity offsetting is based on the mitigation hierarchy, which means that negative impact on nature values at first hand should be avoided, secondly minimized, thirdly rehabilitated on site and finally offsetting can be used for residual, unavoidable impacts. Offsetting measures are normally implemented near the impact site, but can also be implemented through habitat banks. Habitat banks are systems where offsetting measures from several new developments gathers with a trustee. Developers make offsets for their loss of nature values by buying credits in the habitat bank. Biodiversity offsetting can be applied either after claim according to the Swedish environmental code (Miljöbalken) has been demanded through a trial, or when an actor voluntarily wants to compensate for any damages that has occurred. In this study, it is investigated how biodiversity offsetting and habitat banking may be applied in municipal planning. In addition, a strategy for how biodiversity offsetting can be applied in Ystad municipality is presented. The method of the study includes a literature review, interviews and a workshop with municipal officials. The study concludes that biodiversity offsetting can be applied in municipality planning processes, and that it can lead to an increased awareness of the municipality´s natural capital. However, there are also difficulties associated with applying biodiversity offsetting. Above all, municipalities are restricted by not being able to demand offsetting by developers according to the Swedish planning and building act (Plan- och bygglagen). Habitat banking systems could be applied, but to ensure they are effective, a national or regional supervisory body should be established. There are good conditions for applying biodiversity offsetting in Ystad municipality. To make the application effective, a structured workflow and knowledge about biodiversity offsetting and the mitigation hierarchy of officials along with the whole planning- and exploitation process is needed. Keywords: Physical Geography, ecosystem analysis, biodiversity offsets, habitat banking, nature capital, municipal planning.
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