Ekosystemtjänstbedömningar : Utvärdering av metodik för att synliggöra värdet av naturen inom stadsplanering
Sammanfattning: The purpose of this study was to analyze and develop a workflow for assessing and representing the value of ecosystems to professionals involved in municipal planning. A thorough literature review was conducted and supplemented by interviews and observations. Frameworks for ecosystem service assessments were analyzed and combined with methods in urban planning in order to assess social and ecological conditions. A workflow was set up and methods were evaluated by applying them to a case study in the area Åstråket in Uppsala. Experience from the case study was compiled in order to improve the workflow. Complex assessments were identified and simplified for the method to be useful for practitioners. A list of relevant urban ecosystem services was compiled. Eleven activities were chosen and divided into three blocks: planning, situation analysis and redesign. In the planning phase strong civil dialogue would be used to identify user needs and based on them formulate goals for the planned change. In the situation analysis the extent to which ecosystem services were utilized, and how much potential there were to increase the use of them without exceeding the area's biophysical conditions, were assessed. The different ecosystem services in the area were evaluated according to how well they helped to achieve designated goals for the area. In the design stage social-ecological urbanism were used to create a design that will increase the value of ecosystem services for the users of the site. Arrow diagram were used to show how the proposed design supports species in the ecosystem that generates an increased value of the prioritized ecosystem services and contribute to achieving the objectives of the area. The study showed that the value of ecosystem could be made visible by showing how different actors contribute to goal achievement. The methods for quantifying ecosystem services are still trivial and ignore some fundamental social-ecological relations. The methods for social assessments could not be fully tested in the case study because there was ongoing consultation on a plan proposal that prevented any interviews with the users to be done. Assumptions that were important to simplify ecosystem service assessment was that 1) a broad definition of value was used, not just monetary, and that 2) the focus was on increasing the value of ecosystem services rather than replacing some services with others. To improve the method more knowledge on social-ecological interactions is required, a broader discussion about values need to be raised and a more standardized set of indicators needs to be agreed upon. Ecosystem services can also be used as a pedagogical tool for learning about systems thinking, complexity and a diversity of values.
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