Nudge is all around - but what is around the nudge?
Sammanfattning: Nudge theory has become widely popular and influences a variety of fields and policy decisions. Most research done on nudging has focused on the task structure, the environment where the decision is made, and its behavioral effect. The task structure surplus (i.e. who is nudging, what factors influences a nudge and how certain personal characteristics affect attitudes toward nudges) on the other hand has typically been ignored. In our initial study, we mapped out the development of the field of nudging by looking at 507 articles and summarized the findings from studies that had been conducted on attitudes toward nudging. In our second study, we used a within-subject design (n=199) to examine attitudes toward: nudging, transparent and nontransparent nudges, and different choice architects. The consistency between attitude and behavior was investigated through an experimental design (n=508) in our final study. In summary, respondents had a strong general support for the studied nudges, and transparent nudges were preferred over nontransparent ones. A company was preferred as the choice architect behind nudges rather than a public authority. People with hierarchical and individualistic characteristics were less supportive of nudges. Furthermore, our results showed no difference in effect between transparent and nontransparent nudges, and between a company and a public authority as the choice architect. These findings indicate that attitude is not reflected in behavior, an attitude-behavior gap, and that the task structure surplus of nudges influence their perceptibility.
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