Diagnostisering av projekt : En studie med utgångspunkt från SPA-ramverket
The work in project has been around since humans began to hunt in groups, building bridges or building of the Great Wall of China. In 1960- and 70´s, the word project got their value it has today. A project means a work done during a decided time, with decided economy and non-recurring nature (Jansson and Ljung 2004). The projects had a general analytical model. It was used for all projects the organization engaged. Nowadays there are plenty of models that indicates how projects should be handled and organized (Engwall 2004). As an example there is a general project model based on five working step model (Jansson and Ljung 2004). This consists of analyzing the project idea, lead the planning, leading implementation work, leading the handover process and at the end closing out the project organization. Projects are divided into archetypes. Examples of these are utility projects, customer order projects, prod-uct development projects and market projects (Jansson and Ljung 2004).
This has resulted in that a number of researchers have developed models for handling differ-ent types of projects. Ljung (2011) has developed SPA-framework for project analysis. This framework consists of three models of analysis. Analysis model 1,
Strategic significance, ex-amining the project archetype. Analysis model 2, Operational logics, studies the result of the project, the decision-making process and the project phases. Analysis model 3, examines the Complexity of the project. When the project is analysed based on these models, the differ-ences of the projects are shown. Then the project manager can customize project management for its uniqueness.
Our study investigated if the SPA-framework can be used to analyze the project and identify its distinctive characteristics. The result of the project analysis shows that SPA-framework can be used for this purpose. We used the three analytical models,
Strategic significance, Op-erational Logic and Complexity, to formulate questions based on the result-, process- and or-ganization perspective. The analysis of the interviews revealed that all the projects analyzed, have specific distinctive characteristics. Our results demonstrate that there are both similari-ties and differences between the analyzed projects. Technical complexity is the most promi-nent complexity of the analysis. Four out of five projects received this type of complexity. Only one project received Structural complexity. Three projects had a hint of Contextual complexity.
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