Capacity Constraints for Air Traffic Flow Development
Sammanfattning: In aviation, the demand for air traffic grows at a higher rate than the capacity. As the demand is predicted to continue to grow also in the future, so is the problem of capacity shortage. If the capacity cannot match the demand, it will result in congestion and delay. There are numerous factors that limit the capacity both on airside and landside, for example the runway capacity, noise restrictions, the environment surrounding the airport etc. Actors such as airlines, ground service companies, ICAO and IATA also affect and are affected by the available capacity. When planning opening of new airports or in case of changes in the location and size of the airports, the requirement for, as well as the currently available capacity must be examined. Previous studies regarding key limiting factors to air traffic capacity, address different constraints, but lack a comprehensive view. A compilation of air traffic constraints would therefore be a valuable tool in airport planning when capacity demand changes. The aim of this thesis was to identify key limiting factors and see how they affect air traffic. This thesis analyses the importance of different limiting factors in respect to the level of significance to which previous research has acknowledged the different constraints. To compliment the literature review, professionals in airport planning were interviewed. The result from the literature review as well as the interviews showed that the major limiting factor to air traffic capacity is the runway. The runway was also the factor that was affecting as well was affected by other limiting factors. Previous literature considered wake vortex to be the second most important constraint whereas the interviewees considered stands to be the runner up limiting factor. In conclusion, this thesis showed that the runway is the most important limiting factor to air traffic capacity. The thesis also showed that different limiting factors are closely linked to each other. For an overall understanding of air traffic capacity constraints and how these constraints affect air traffic flow, it is essential to understand the interaction between the limiting factors.
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