Hur viktig är strukturomvandlingen för den långsiktiga ekonomiska tillväxten?

Detta är en Kandidat-uppsats från Lunds universitet/Nationalekonomiska institutionen

Sammanfattning: Structural transformation is a broad concept that has been widely argued to be of great importance for long-run economic growth. A common historical pattern highlights the labour shift out of agriculture towards manufacturing and industry sectors as the main characteristic of structural transformation. Today, large parts of the world are industrialized, as a result of a successful structural change, but most African countries are still in the beginning of the process. In sub-Saharan Africa the low-productive agriculture sector still represents about 65% of the total labour force. These countries are therefore in need of developing their modern sectors such as industry and service sector to increase overall productivity and thus induce economic growth. Consequently, this thesis aims to investigate the effect of structural transformation on economic growth in the sub-Saharan African countries. The study is based on panel data spanning 25 years between 1993 and 2017 for 36 countries. Previous research provides ambiguous result, but a general conclusion states that the structural transformation has had an inducing effect on economic growth first in the 21st century. We wish to complement these previous results by using the latest data available, and three examination variables measuring the structural transformation process. Our result indicates a significant effect on economic growth through two out of three examination variables. This indicates that the productivity increase, caused by the labour shift out of agriculture towards the high-productive modern sector, is of most importance when it comes to structural transformation having a positive effect on economic growth.

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