KLIMATNEUTRAL- OCH ENERGISMART BETONGTILLVERKNING : En energiteknisk State of the art-studie och analys
Sammanfattning: In abstract, it can be emphasized that the concrete industry influences and is significant based on the sustainability dimensions. The concrete industry is also an industry where actors with different backgrounds interact to achieve the different climate goals. To achieve the climate goals, climate-neutral and energy-smart concrete production is a major step that actor in the concrete industry want to fulfill and take. One way to achieve or develop the concrete industry or operations is to raise and further develop the current competence that exists in the main areas of climate impact, concrete recycling, renewable energy, and sustainability. In the main areas, specific and concrete solutions and calculations have been identified and compiled to present guidelines and recommendations to achieve the purpose of the study. This study was carried out in collaboration with Skanska AB. By analytically quantifying and comparing the theoretical energy flow in concrete factories compared to the practical, concrete production is a resource- and energy intensive manufacturing process. In general, the manufacturing process of concrete is simple, as concrete is a mixture of product cement, water, aggregate (stone and gravel) and additives. The manufacturing process of concrete and the material flow is designed and carried out in a concrete factory where the materials are mixed and assembled to produce quantities of concrete. Cleaning and flushing of the concrete trucks take place at concrete factories and is also resource and energy intensive. Climate-improved concrete is a concrete concept that concrete actors have been further developed and commercialized to reduce the climate impact of standard concrete, where additives from residual products from industrial processes replace parts of the initial amount of cement. To analyze and compare the development of Skanska's Green Concrete and how significant the concrete types are based on the sustainability dimensions the assessment of environmental impact has been analyzed. The analysis is based on the environmental product declarations EPD, the environmental impact unit ELU and the EPS (Environment Priority Strategies) system. Based on the study's delimitations, the focus is mainly on the production and manufacturing phase, which based on LCA means that LCA phases A1-A3 are in focus, where LCA phase A3 stands for the manufacturing process. Although the manufacturing process of concrete is resource- and energy-intensive, the manufacturing process A3 stands for the smallest climate impact in comparison with LCA phases A1 and A2, where LCA phase A1, which is the raw material supply, stands for the largest climate impact. During the winter period when the temperature decreases less than 5 degrees Celsius, the manufacturing process of concrete becomes resource and energy demanding. The reason is because concrete is a temperature-sensitive material, whose properties vary and deteriorate at incorrect temperatures. In connection with concrete produced in concrete factories, a traditional heating system is used only during the winter period, which produces amounts of carbon dioxide through the combustion process of fuel oil. The purpose of the heating system and boiler is to heat an amount of water and aggregate, which is an energy-intensive process required only in the winter period because the outdoor temperature is not sufficient for concrete production. During the winter period, the manufactured concrete risks deteriorating the concrete characteristics, where the concrete can have a low formability and compressive strength. Purchased electricity from the electricity grid is also used or consumed in connection with heating processes, manufacturing processes or other sub-processes required for cleaning and flushing of concrete trucks. Based on this study’s result, the concrete factory in the Stockholm area consumes just over 16 kWh/m^3 during winter production. The results of this study consist of a compilation of results of Skanska's various environmental product declarations to emphasize how significant concrete production is based on the sustainability dimensions. Based on the result compilation of the ELU values, the manufacturing process (A3) - and the production of concrete (A1-A3) have the most significant impact on the ELU aspects YOLL and Cradle to gate GHG index. Based on Skanska's Green concrete types and the industry's reference concrete, the difference between the concrete types is 137 kg CO2 equivalent for Green Wall Concrete, 95 kg CO2 equivalent for Green Floor Concrete and 52 kg CO2 equivalent for Green Garage Concrete. The cost analysis and assessment of potential and identified recycling- and energy systems is another part of the result, where the Circulus system is an identified recycling system, while solar cells and batteries connected to the electricity grid are an identified energy system. The purpose of the recycling system is to carry out circular concrete production, and in connection with the observations and interviews carried out, the design of recycling processes will be achieved through the implementation of the innovative recycling system. The recycling system Circulus, which is a combination of two products from the company’s Mapei and Allu, is a present example of how the concrete industry's transition to circular concrete production is to be achieved. Based on the cost assessment of the Circulus system, the total cost, including investment and maintenance costs, has been calculated at just over 1 250 000 SEK. Based on the concrete factory in the Stockholm area's handling of recycled concrete and the C3C-blocks, a payback period of 9 years has been calculated. Regarding the energy system, the purpose is to present a new renewable energy source to the concrete plant and optimize the use of the energy system to minimize the costs of purchasing electricity from the electricity grid. Based on a sensitivity analysis of different optimization cases, an energy system of varying solar cell and battery sizes connected to the electricity grid is the most profitable structure of an energy system. The energy system with the solar cell power of 165 kW and the battery size of 330 kWh has a net cost of just over SEK 294 000, where the cost of buying electricity is just over SEK 373 000, and the income from selling electricity is just over SEK 72 000. Regardless of the energy system's structure or the construction of solar cells with or without a battery, the energy system's system operating costs will always be less than the cost of purchased electricity in 2021. In connection with electricity being the energy carrier in concrete factories, the use and implementation of solar cells is a long-term sustainable energy solution.
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