Gångavstånd till utrymningsvägar : En studie om gångstånden till utrymningsvägar och dess dimensioneringsmöjligheter med hjälp av förenklad dimensionering
The title of this degree project after three years long education of construction engineering is “Distances to evacuation routes” with the subtitle “A study of walking distances to escape routes and its design possibilities using simplified dimensioning”. The idea for the project came from the company Fire AB in Västerås. They are oriented in fire protection dimensioning. When specifying the fire protection for a building you can choose from two different methods, simplified dimensioning or analytical dimensioning. The simplified dimensioning is an easier way of designing the fire protection, you just follow the rules in BBR given by the swedish national board of housing, bulding and planning. Analytical dimensioning is a more complicated method which places higher demands on the user. In some cases analytical dimensioning is a demand. There has been a problem with the simplified method when you dimension the distance to an emergency exit. The maximum distance to an escape route is given in BBR 19/20 and can’t be exceeded at any time. If you have a distance of 31 meters and the acceptable distance is 30 m you would have to solve it with analytical dimensioning, but if you have a normal ceiling height this is very difficult because the calculation values are very high compared to the values used in simplified dimensioning. The only way to get that extra meter accepted is to install some kind of fire alarm which increases the cost of the building. Before BBR 19/20 you could do a report with a risk analysis of that extra meter. That extra meter is often a corner in a room and doesn’t affect the evacuation. When you calculate that extra meter it will affect the evacuation time considerably but in reality it doesn’t make any major difference. It’s not reasonable to install a fire alarm that increases the cost of the building with an extra hundred thousand SEK. The question that will be answered is: How has the maximum walking distance to escape routes changed over time in the different regulations? The requirements for walking distances to escape routes being used today, how where these created and have they been tested in any way? How do they do in Norway, Finland and New Zealand when they decide the maximum distance to an escape route? What do the calculations say? Would a longer distance to an escape route or a higher ceiling height be better for the people that evacuate?
There are differences in the maximum distance to an escape route between the countries that has been compared in this essay. In some cases has Norway and Finland has a longer distance than Sweden but overall they are very simlilar. New Zeeland is the country with the longest walking distance in all scenarios. In some cases New Zeeland has the double amount of meters than Sweeden to an escape route. The capter about walking distances to an escape route in the swedish ordinance “Boverkets byggregler” has looked almost the same since 1975. It is time for that chapter to be revised after todays building techniques and materials.
Keywords: distance, evacuations, routes, fire, dimensioning, housing, building and planning.
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