Simulering av effekten av taktiska val och byggnadens egenskaper vid insats i garage under mark
Sammanfattning: Fires in underground parking garages in the recent years are believed to have increased in severity and poses a safety problem for Swedish fire and rescue services. Among the suspected reasons for the increased severity is an increase in time before an internal operation is initiated by the fire and rescue services. With several tactical decisions available during an operation, it is often uncertain how these would affect key safety parameters such as temperature and visibility. To examine the effect such decisions may have, this work started with outlining available decisions through interviews with a few fire and rescue services in Sweden. The identified tactical decisions were then examined using the computer simulation program Fire Dynamics Simulator with focus on the key safety parameters temperature and visibility. The examined scenarios regarding fire and rescue operations included time of arrival and the use of positive pressure ventilators, with and without added water mist, placed in the entrance of the garage. In addition, building specific scenarios with variation in ceiling height and amount openings for smoke ventilation were also examined. The results showed a small improvement when using positive pressure ventilators, both with and without water mist, regarding temperature and visibility. Ceiling height and increased amount of smoke ventilation openings also improved the conditions. This work was limited to cars with regular fuels, petrol and diesel, further investigations of cars with alternative fuels, such as electricity or gas, is therefore recommended. In addition, a closer investigation of tactical decisions is also recommended since some of the results differ from what fire and rescue services have experienced in practical use.
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