Den digitala handelns fastighetsmarknad - Var ska E-handeln lokaliseras?
Sammanfattning: The fact that e-commerce has increased significantly in recent years has not gone unnoticed, and its features have been marked in both private life as well as in business. The physical commerce has changed to an increased shopping through the internet, which is a development of the trade of goods that was one of the earliest commercial forms. Since the internet, and thereby the E-commerce, was launched in the early 1990s, the trend has increased rapidly and in the past twenty years, sales of goods sold on the internet have more than tenfold. Beyond the retail market, there are operations in the dark, which are also affected by an increased the E-commerce market. Within the real estate industry there is a segment called warehouse and logistics aimed at commercial real estate with buildings built for warehouse and logistics operations. An increased number of E-commerce companies as well as an increasing sales-volume requires larger space to store and distribute the goods. The existing localization theories that are used today are not adapted for this type of stock and trade because of the unique requirements with E-commerce layers that must be met, including in terms of short lead times to the consumer. The question then arises where warehouse and logistics properties used for E-commerce should be located and what factors are most important for an optimal location? The report also investigates if modern or traditional localization theories could be used to motivate the location that E-commerce companies can use for their businesses. The purpose of this report is to investigate which parameters that are crucial at the location selection and what the optimal situation for an E-commerce warehouse is. In addition, it is also desired to investigate whether it is possible to apply an existing localization principle in this market. In order to answer these questions, a survey of the market and application of theoretical models on reality is required. This report aims to use regression analysis, interviews and location theory analyzed in GIS to answer the questions. The regression describes a statistical relationship that, by using four different models, showed that there were only a few factors that had a major impact on an optimal E-trading location. The most influential variables are distance to major road (while other infrastructure had less impact), distance to any of the three largest cities (where an increased distance lead to a worsening position) and accessibility to university with a logistic education in nearest city. The interview studies responded to the impact of factors hard to measure. Here it was stated that partial tradition, coincidence and size of the company has affected where the properties lie today. Even according to the interviews, the labor force has been a major part of the localization processes. Analyzes in the GIS of Localization Theorem Web's location production triangle has a large similarity to the center of gravity and shows that the least cost-generating modes lie mainly on the west coast and in Scania depending on the model used. Through discussion and analysis of the results, it is concluded that localization theories are largely inapplicable, though some such as the center of gravity method or further developed web site production triangle provide more as a guide to each individual business location. The common factors that appear to apply to each location are distance to major road, number of major cities within two hours of driving and access to college. Other factors that can be included are opportunities for expansion, social issues relating to labor, municipalities' willingness to cooperate and partial tradition, but also by chance not all land and all premises are locatable. Which locations that may be of interest to E-commerce companies have been produced using all three analyzers and have been decided at Eskilstuna, Örebro, Borås or Jönköping. Along the west coast around Gothenburg and Scania there may be pure economic gains from transport costs but only for guidance. It is therefore better not to locate these kinds of warehouse in direct connection with major cities, nor in a region between the metropolitan areas but advantageous to reach as large a customer base as possible with one day delivery.
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