Det fria skolvalets geografi - En GIS-baserad studie av skolresor i Göteborg
Sammanfattning: The implementation of school choice and the school voucher system have changed the geography of school trips in Sweden. The changing mobility of students have attracted a growing amount of research from various disciplines. Few studies however have focused on the added distances traveled since the reforms, and the implications this has on sustainable mobility. This study sets out to add to the body of research on school choice by deepening the understanding of how school choice affects distance travelled. Using GIS network analysis, we examine the current distance between home and school addresses for all students between the ages of 13 and 15 enrolled in public or private education in Gothenburg. The trip distances are then compared to a set of theoretical trip models where school enrollment is determined by student-school proximity. The results show that trip lengths generated by the 15 960 students in the study adds up to 108 000 kilometers each school day. Students attending private schools travel by average twice the distance compared to students enrolled in the public school system. The results also show a substantial difference between distance travelled today and the models based on proximity. If all students were to attend the geographically closest school a reduction in total trip length by 67 percent would be achieved. Furthermore, the share of students with walking or cycling distance to school would increase by 50 percent. The findings suggest that current trip lengths discourage students from choosing active modes of transportation in their daily mobility trajectories. It also highlights the difficulties for planners to implement effective sustainable transport policies given today’s localization patterns.
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