Very Heavy Resisted Sprint Training for Adolescent Football Players : A training intervention on acceleration, sprint and jump performance in late pubertal adolescent athletes
Sammanfattning: Abstract Aim The main purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of a very heavy resisted sprint training regimen and a unresisted sprint training regimen on sprint, acceleration and jump performance in late pubertal adolescent football (soccer) players at mid- to post-PHV and >95% PAH. Method In total 27 male football players were recruited as volunteer participants. The participants had no previous experience with resisted sprint training. The participants were randomly assigned to either the resisted sprint (RST) (n=9) or unresisted sprint (UST) (n=10) training group. However, the grouping was matched based on the force-velocity (F-v) profiling. A control group (i.e. TAU group n=8) was matched with the experimental groups based on age and anthropometrics. The training was done twice a week for four weeks, consisting of either resisted or unresisted sprints. 24 of the original 27 participants could later be included for statistical analysis. During intervention the TAU group performed the regular team training with no additional stimuli from the researchers. Anthropometrics, sprint, acceleration and jump performance testing was tested pre- and post-training intervention. Results The four-week training intervention resulted in significant improvements of sprint- and acceleration for the RST-group. The improvements were 3,8% (±0.05) in T30, 4,2% (±0.06) in T20, 5,7% (±0.06) in T10, and 7,9% (±0.06) in the T5. The RST and UST groups also had significant improvements in both vertical and horizontal jump performance. Further there were several significant between group changes in both sprint and jump performance favoring the RST group over both the UST and TAU groups. Conclusion The conclusions are that in this population a very heavy RST regimen elicits improvements in sprint and acceleration performance whilst a UST regimen does not. Further, both the RST- and UST- training regimens elicit improvements in both vertical and horizontal jump performance. The improvements of the present study follow the pattern of previous studies in the field indicating a greater horizontal force generating ability. However, the improvements in the present study are larger than previously seen, indicating that this type of training might be extra beneficial to enhance sprint and jump performance in late pubertal adolescent athletes. The findings of the present study also contradict the typical recommendations of using light resistance loads (i.e. the 10% rule) when it comes to RST. Heavier loads, as in this case 103,5% of body weight on average, can indeed be used to produce sprint and acceleration gains in a late pubertal adolescent athlete population. The improvement in these short sprints (5-30m) versus the eventual performance decrease in longer sprints 40-70m (e.g. due to less effective maximal velocity phase) is a trade off which logically should be worthwhile for team sport athletes.
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