Etanol som drivmedel : En analys av etanolbränslets minskade användning och dess framtidsutsikter
Sammanfattning: The use of biofuels within the Swedish transport sector has increased, although the use of ethanolhas decreased considerably since 2011. The purpose of this report is to examine why and onwhat grounds this decrease has occurred. Furthermore the report aims to discuss whether thisdevelopment is beneficial to reaching the climate goals of Sweden. The study focuses solely onethanol as a high proportion blend of E85 for road transportation and its future within theSwedish transport sector. The following questions have therefore been formulated: Why has thesale of ethanol (E85) decreased? Can ethanol (E85) be a tool for Sweden in order to reach itsclimate goals? In order to answer these questions, 12 interviews were conducted with different stakeholdersrelated to ethanol fuel. Stakeholders represented in this report are: organizations, authorities, fueldistributors, car manufacturers, scientists and purchasers. From the interviews, a number offactors that are assumed to have impacted the use of E85 were identified. The identified factorswere: the debate around the land use for ethanol production and its connection to increased foodprices and climate benefit, technical problems, increased operating costs, political means ofcontrol and pricing, and limited sales of new cars. It is probable that no single factor caused thedecrease in the use of E85, but that it was rather a combination of all of the aforementionedfactors over a certain period of time that lead to the decrease. In order for Sweden to reach its climate goals, three factors are significant: energy efficiency, adecrease in transportation and increased usage of renewable fuels must be implemented. E85could be part of the solution in order to reach these goals. There currently exists an infrastructurefor E85, which means that the goals can be reached in the short term, compared to electrification,which is considered to be a long term solution. Political means of control are crucial to the roleof the biofuel in the transition that is required to reach the goals, since they decide how E85 willbe able to compete on the fuel market going forward.
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