Comparison of solar thermal and photovoltaic assisted heat pumps for multi-family houses in Sweden
Sammanfattning: The building sector account for 40 % of the global energy demand, and an increasingly popular way to supply buildings with heat is through the use of heat pumps. Solar thermal (ST) can either be used as a low temperature energy source in the heat pump or to directly supply the building’s heating demand. The increasing market of PV has made it a favorite for roof-top solar installation. Its physical integration with buildings and HPs is simpler than that of ST and can supply any available electric load associated with the building and not just the HP system. It can also supply any excess power to the grid. In order to properly compare these two options, key performance indicators (KPIs) were identified for several system boundaries within the building and HP system. Technical KPIs used were seasonal performance factor (SPF), solar fraction (SF) and self-consumption (SC), while internal rate of return (IRR), net present value (NPV), profitability index (PI) and payback time was used to evaluate their economic performance. For the thesis a multi-family house was modelled in TRNSYS where different system sizes of either ST or PVs was simulated for a year with three-minute intervals. The ST was connected in a parallel configuration thereby supplying the building’s domestic hot water (DHW) through a separate storage tank. The modelled heat pump was a ground source heat pump (GSHP) which utilizes boreholes as the low temperature energy source. The SPF increased for both the ST and PV integration from the reference scenario (no PV/ST integration) but to a varying degree depending on the analyzed system boundary. The economic results suggested that PVs are the more financially sound option over ST for the simulated MFH. The sensitivity analysis also showed the large impact of economic assumptions on the expected profitability for both the PV and ST systems. Based on the results would the simulated MFH with an existing GSHP benefit more from installing PV instead of ST from both a technical, economic and environmental perspective. It is reasonable that PVs will most likely be an integral part for future buildings in Sweden with or without HPs because of its financial strength and versatility of demand supply, especially compared to ST.
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