Design of an off-grid renewable-energy hybrid system for a grocery store: a case study in Malmö, Sweden
Sammanfattning: On planet Earth, fossil fuels are the most important sources of energy. However, these resources are limited and being depleted dramatically throughout last decades. Finding feasible substitutes of these resources is an essential duty for humanity. Fortunately, Mother Nature is providing us a number of good solutions for this crucial threat against our planet. Solar irradiance, wind blowing, oceanic and maritime waves are natural resources of energy that are capable of completely covering the annual consumption of all inhabitants on the Earth. In this research a set of components including “Northern Power NPS 100-24” wind generators, “Kyocera KD 145 SX-UFU” PV arrays, “Gildemeister 10kW-40kWh Cellcube” battery bank and HOMER bi-directional converter system were considered and successfully applied on HOMER tool and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method. The main design goals of the presented hybrid system are to use 100% renewable energy resources in the commercial sector, where all power is produced in the immediate vicinity of the business place, adding strong advertising values to the setup. In order to supply hourly required load for a grocery store (1000 ) in Malmö city with 115 kW peak load and 2002 kWh/d with maximum 0.1% unmet, the system was optimized to achieve minimum Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) and the lowest Net Present Cost (NPC). The HOMER simulation for quantitative analysis, along with a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) solution method is proposed and the results are compared. The results show that an optimized hybrid system with 3.12 LCOE, and power production of 28.5% by PV arrays and 71.5% by wind generators, is the best practice for this case study.
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