Arbetsmotivation och distansarbete - En studie om arbetsmotivation och psykologisk behovsuppfyllelse vid övergången till distansarbete under covid-19
Sammanfattning: The aim of this study was to examine employees' perceived work motivation andhow it has changed when forced to telework instead of regular office work. The studyis based on the Self-determination theory (SDT) and its psychological needs;autonomy, competence and relatedness and will also explore the degree of which theneeds are fulfilled and if there are any relations with work motivation. During thewinter and spring of 2020, the pandemic of Covid 19 has hit the world, Swedenincluded. This has forced individuals to social distancing to avoid infection andtherefore, employers have chosen to switch to telework in order to followrecommendations. Not only has the employees been affected by currentcircumstances, but also from a new way of working which they have to adjust to. Anew way of working that on one hand may lead to social isolation and less supportfrom the manager, but on the other hand also could promote freer work and increasedautonomy.The study was conducted among individuals who usually are working in office, butsince the circumstances have changed to telework. To collect quantitative data, adigital survey was sent to two different companies and shared with relevantnetworks. A total of 143 respondents participated. In order to examine the workmotivation and psychological needs, descriptive statistics and correlations were usedand analyzed. These tests indicate different opinions on whether the work motivationhas changed or not. Almost half of the respondents expressed a decrease in workmotivation while only a few experiences an increased work motivation. Yet over all,the work motivation has remained high even during telework.Our study shows that there are a number of factors that may affect how workmotivation is experienced, such as individual differences and work climate andcontext. Results show that employees experienced an decreased relatedness andsupport from colleagues as well as their manager. At the same time, increasedfreedom and flexibility is experienced in the telework. Finally, results show that thethree psychological needs are more or less fulfilled. There is also a relative strongcorrelation between work motivation and autonomy, competence and relatedness.
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