Preoperativ ångest - Anestesisjuksköterskans möjliga åtgärder. En systematisk litteraturöversikt.
Sammanfattning: Background: The whole process of undergoing surgery is an emotional rollercoaster for most people. Preoperative anxiety is not an uncommon phenomenon and is currently a growing concern in modern anesthesia. It is general knowledge that untreated preoperative anxiety has consequences, not only during the operation but also on postoperative care. During general anesthesia, it has been proven that patients with preoperative anxiety require more sedation during operation, as well as more medication to combat postoperative pain instances. Aim: To examine which existing measures anesthetic nurses use to suppress patient anxiety preoperatively, in preparation for anesthesia. Method: A quantitative systematic literature review based on nine research articles. The articles were obtained from searches in the databases PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus. The articles were analysed, by meta-analysis, based on the aim and research question. Results: Three themes emerged during analysis. Preoperative information and education; patients benefit from information before the surgery, particularly visual media but even more by having a complementary physical meeting with the anesthesiologist in charge. Music therapy showed equally good results as it distracts from negative thoughts and stimulates a feeling of calmness. Finally, pharmacological intervention was a popular and efficient type of action for treating preoperative anxiety. The use of Midazolam preoperatively proved to require less anesthetic agents during surgery and provided faster recovery postoperatively. Conclusion: The review suggests that both preoperative information and education as well as music therapy generate positive outcomes when it comes to suppressing anxiety preoperatively. The use of pharmacological interventions, such as benzodiazepines, has potential to reduce the use of anaesthesia during surgery and also enhance the recovery process during postoperative care. The key findings are to communicate and build a sustainable relationship with the patients. This requires an established work routine when it comes to treating preoperative anxiety as it will increase the general patient satisfaction.
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