Planering för laddningsstationer vid parkeringsområden
Sammanfattning: In the transport sector, fossil fuels such as petrol, diesel and aviation fuel make up the largest share of energy use. A renewable transport method that has grown very much is battery-powered cars that are charged via a charging station that is connected to the electricity grid. As the proportion of rechargeable cars increases, a charging infrastructure must also be expanded so that the cars have somewhere to "refuel" like today's petrol stations. Building a functioning charging infrastructure can be difficult. Today, there are mainly three different types of charging depending on which area the parking area is connected to. The aim of the project was to create a planning model that highlights important aspects when planning a new area with associated parking space with charging stations, such as the type of charging station, payment system, design, etc. To create the planning model, it was first necessary to study which aspects are considered when planning a parking area without charging stations. Today, parking areas are planned according to the model “planning process based on the Planning and Building Act” and to make the planning template easier to use, the existing model according to the Planning and Building Act was used as a basis. When the planning model was created, an example was also made in the project of an existing parking area about a retail area in Gothenburg that includes 294 parking spaces. For the example, it was chosen to install 185 charging stations, of which 180 semi-fast charging stations and five fast charging stations. As so many charging stations were planned, a power requirement of 4,210 kW, active power, would need to be delivered. The results from the planning model show that there are many new aspects that are important to consider when planning a parking area with charging stations. One of the most important aspects is to choose the type of charging station that is most suitable for the specific area. For retail areas, for example, it is smartest to choose semi-fast charging stations. A general conclusion that can be drawn when planning parking areas is to always install ducts directly during soil preparation. Because if you decide to install ducting after asphalting has been done, large parts of the soil preparation will need to be redone, which can lead to a loss of up to seven times money on soil preparation alone. Another important conclusion that can be taken from the project is that an expansion of the electricity network will be required in order to have a functioning charging infrastructure because such large effects will be needed.
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