Development of new criteria for train detection and evaluation in critical conditions
Sammanfattning: Railway signaling is of paramount importance to ensure traffic management andsafety on the rail network. The main lines are divided into sections called ‘blocks’,which are governed by a fixed signal installation. To prevent trains from colliding,each block allows one train at once. In France (and most European countries),train detection is performed by an electrical device called track circuit that consistsof a transmitter and a receiver installed at the track-side, and connected via therails. In the absence of a train, an electrical signal flows from the transmitter tothe receiver through the rails. As a train enters a track circuit, its axles shuntthe rails, provoking a short circuit (also called ‘shunt’): the signal transmitted tothe receiver drops. The detection of that signal drop results in the detection of atrain. This method rarely fails throughout the network, but there can be criticalcases where it may be inefficient. In this Master’s Thesis, new detection criteriaproposed in previous studies have been tested on signals measured in poor shuntingconditions. Three approaches have been tested: one in the time domain and two inthe frequency domain. The time approach compares the short-term and long-termstatistics of the received signals. The observation of a change in the spectra of thereceived signals around the 3rd order harmonic (3OH) has led to the implementationof two frequency criteria: the estimation of the band power around the 3OH andthe detection of the 3OH peaks. The obtained results show that better detection isachieved when the new criteria and the existing one are combined.
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