IQ and Adjustment : Gender Differences in Income and Parenthood
Sammanfattning: IQ has been shown to predict life outcomes such as income and education, but to benefit men more than women. Parenthood is in turn known to be partly predicted by variables correlated with IQ, with more educated and well-paid subjects being more probable to become parents. Previous research has found evidence for a “fatherhood premium” for men and a “motherhood penalty” for women, with fathers tending to earn more than comparable non-fathers and mothers in turn earning less than childless women. This study used data from a longitudinal Swedish study to investigate the relationship between IQ, parenthood and income. Results showed that both men and women in the low IQ group had a lower probability of parenthood, men significantly so. A fatherhood premium was found, but it disappeared when controlling for working hours. A more consistent and significant motherhood penalty disfavoring women with children was found in the high IQ group, but this difference could not explain much of the much larger income difference between the genders. Whereas the average hourly wages of all groups of men were higher than those of all groups of women, all groups of women had a higher mean probability of parenthood than all groups of men. Previous research has indicated that some groups seem to “have it all” in the sense of being uniformly well-adjusted, but in this sample it appears to be more of a trade-off with no group being consistently at an advantage on all indices of adjustment.
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