"Det man ska lära i skolan är svårt, så det ska vara lätt att vara i skolan" : En studie om hur grundlärare i årskurs f-3 kan anpassa både undervisning och lärmiljö för att bidra till ökad läsförståelseförmåga hos elever med autism.
Sammanfattning: This study aims to contribute with increased knowledge about how teaching and learning environment can be designed to increase the conditions for children with autism to achieve the knowledge requirements for reading comprehension in Swedish grade 3, by examining how some elementary teachers describe that they adapt method and environment for students with autism. Theoretical framework consists of Rogoff's socio-cultural theory that all learning can be analyzed through three different lenses: the cultural, the interpersonal and the individual, which together provide a holistic view of learning. Additional key concepts are scaffolding, mediation, the proximal development zone and appropriation. The study is based on a qualitative approach and the basis for data collection is written questionnaires combined with a focus group. The focus group discussion was recorded and transcribed. Transcription and questionnaire responses were analyzed using a thematic analysis model. The results show that it is required that the teacher has knowledge of autism, and that there are organizational conditions, for students with autism to be able to receive support and adaptations that correspond to the student's needs. Adaptations regarding the learning environment that are highlighted in the results are screens in the classroom, ear protectors, image support, schedules on the bench and at the board, support for time perception, active work with energy regulation, and digital aids. Teaching methods for increased reading comprehension ability that are lifted are to stop when reading and discuss, to think aloud, use image support, create pre-understanding in the student, and to give the student reading comprehension tools. In addition to adaptations in the learning environment and teaching, a need for support in social contexts for students with autism is also raised, and the importance of all adjustments being made in a way that does not have stigmatizing effects.
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