Klimatavtal mot nya höjder? Sverige som statlig aktör i förhandlingarna om ett marknadsbaserat styrmedel för internationellt flyg
Sammanfattning: In this study, Sweden’s role in the negotiations towards managing greenhouse gas emissions from international aviation in the UN specialized agency International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) is analysed. In 2016, ICAO decided to implement an emissions offsetting mechanism for international aviation, called CORSIA (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction System for International Aviation). CORSIA has been criticized for not contributing to any actual emission reductions from international aviation. Therefore, the aim of the study is to examine if Sweden, as a country with ambitious domestic objectives for climate change policy, can work for a more ambitious climate framework for international aviation. This is examined through interviews with Swedish delegates in ICAO and with an observer in the international negotiations from an environmental NGO. The analysis is conducted through a theoretical framework focusing on the interplay between the national and the international level, based on Robert Putnam’s metaphor of international negotiations as two-level games, Dana Fisher’s theory of the global environmental system and earlier empirical research. The results show that Sweden is constrained in the negotiations because of states with prominent international interests, and that Sweden and other European countries have made significant compromises in the negotiations. However, the European countries have been successful in including the possibility to increase the emissions reduction goal for CORSIA over time. This indicates that the European countries, including Sweden, have some bargaining leverage in future work for a more effective framework. Even so, it seems that a more ambitious emissions reduction goal will be hard to attain. The study gives an insight into the possibilities and constraints that Sweden faces in the negotiations for a climate deal for international aviation. It contributes to research on international climate regimes, specifically the relatively new policy area of managing greenhouse gas emissions from international transport.
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