Vilka potentiella behandlingsalternativ finns det mot bakteriella infektionssjukdomar som ligger i fas 2-3 studier eller som man bedriver forskning på?

Detta är en Kandidat-uppsats från Linnéuniversitetet/Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB)

Sammanfattning: Resistance against antibiotics has become a global world problem. The effect of antibiotics is affected by the resistant bacteria and they cause infections that are difficult to treat. This is a major burden on the healthcare and leads to increased mortality. Globally, about 700,000 people die each year because of antibiotic resistance. By the year 2050 death rates are estimated to have increased to 10 million deaths per year due to the lack of effective treatment methods against multiresistant bacteria. Pharmaceutical companies’ research to develop new antibiotics is steadily decreasing, while multiresistant bacteria increase in number and spread. Bacteria evolve fast and highly resistant bacteria seem to evolve almost at the same pace as new drugs are discovered. As more antibiotics are used, more resistance is developed, so the pharmacy industry keep having to find new antimicrobial agents that the bacteria haven´t figured out how to protect themselves against yet.  The aim of this study was to investigate different treatment options available for infectious diseases that are currently in phase 2 or 3 clinical trials studies or research is being conducted on? This study is a literature study, five articles were selected from PubMed and analyzed. One study evaluates the effect of using new compounds to target a new potential pocket on DNA-gyrase. One study evaluates if silver can disturb the structure of the bacteria and thus increase the flow of antibiotics into the cell. Three studies evaluate the effect of nanoparticles containing metals such as silver or copper-zink-iron and the bacteriocin nisin. The current study shows that new compounds as well as new approaches to treating bacterial infections are expected to help stop this crisis. New strategies in the field of antibiotics include new drug targets, new drug delivery methods and new drug combinations. The compounds produced and directed against the new pocket on DNA-gyrase were stopped due to toxicity but opens a new path for further research. Cells treated with silver had different membrane permeability, destabilized the structure of the peptidoglycan layer and increased production of hydroxyl radicals. Nanoparticles seem to be a potential antibacterial agent, the advantage of nanoparticles is that substances can be combined within nanoparticles and provide synergistic effects. With the help of nanotechnology, drug delivery systems can be improved as well as drug administration. More studies are needed though to investigate the safety of taking nanoparticles and to verify the results of this literature review. 

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