Statlig kreditgaranti som styrmedel för energieffektivisering av flerbostadshus
Sammanfattning: The purpose of this paper was to investigate the possibilities of introducing a state credit guarantee for energy efficiency of apartment buildings. Heating and hot water in apartment buildings account for about 8% of Sweden's total energy use and many of the buildings have potential to greatly reduce its energy use. In Sweden, there are today more than 300,000 apartments in apartment buildings that are in urgent need of renovation, which creates the possibility to simultaneously and cost-effectively implement energy-efficient technology in the climate shell that reduces the property's energy need. However, investments in energy efficiency are often not financially viable, which results in property owners refraining from implementing energy efficient improvements. Due to a building's climate shell often having a lifespan of more than 50 years, the energy savings could be lost for a long time. Thus, a state instrument for energy efficiency improvement of apartment buildings in order to increase the prospects for business economic profitability for property owners may be of interest, with the aim of working towards Sweden's environmental goals to halve the energy intensity by 2030 relative to 2005. A literature study of the market conditions for a state credit guarantee has been carried out as the basis for results. In addition, calculations were made of the business profitability with and without credit guarantee and the estimated cost to society. The design and cost assumptions of the credit guarantee were based on Boverket's existing credit guarantee for housing development. The calculations were carried out on a fictitious house that was produced in a report from ÅF together with the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation. The result showed that a state credit guarantee made investment in energy efficiency measurements financially viable. With a fee for the credit guarantee, the business financial profitability was + 1%, seen as the present value of future energy savings in relation to investment cost. With a non-fee credit guarantee, the profitability was + 5%. For society, a state credit guarantee as a policy instrument is considerably more cost-effective compared to previously used subsidies for similar purposes. From the results, it can be concluded that a government credit guarantee, despite corporate financial profitability, may need to be supplemented by other informative instruments or measures in order to accomplish desired energy efficiency, due to the business financial profitability being strongly dependent on several uncertain parameters over a long period of time.
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