Kan kronisk postoperativ smärta förutses? Identifiering av perioperativa prediktorer

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Sammanfattning: Background: Over 1,4 million surgeries were performed in Sweden during 2019.Surgery can lead to chronic postoperative pain and implicate suffering. As many as 81% are diagnosed with chronic postoperative pain. The nurse anesthetists aim is to achieve pain relief for the patient during surgery and to relieve pain in the postoperative course. This requires good knowledge about pain, its physiology and complexity and how to approach it. Aim: To identify perioperative predictors in the development of chronic postsurgical pain. Method: A systematic review. Results: Several predictors in developing chronic postsurgical pain within the perioperative context were found. Some of which only present in single studies. The most occurrent predictors found were postoperative pain, age, preoperative pain and psychological factors. Conclusion: This systematic review shows that chronic postoperative pain is common after surgery and neuropathic pain is a common cause. The predictors that were identified could be prevented in many ways and therefore decrease the outcome of chronic postoperative pain. These preventions could include intraoperative nociceptive monitoring or prevention of psychological factors. Further research is needed to identify predictors associated with specific surgical procedures in order to develop frameworks for how these can be approached.

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