Frukt- och grönsakskonsumtion bland ungdomar i Sverige. Skillnader mellan ungdomar med olika sociodemografisk bakgrund.
Sammanfattning: Title:Fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents in Sweden. Differences between adolescents with different sociodemographic background.Course:MED730, Research thesis in Clinical Nutrition, 30 ECTSLevel:Second CycleSemester/year:St/2018Supervisor:Anna Karin LindroosExaminer:Frode SlindeKeywords:Fruit, vegetable, adolescents, dietary assessment, sociodemographic factors, school mealBackground:Fruit and vegetable as a part of a healthy diet can reduce the risk of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and some forms of cancer. European studies have shown a low consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents. In Sweden there is no previous national study that has examined the fruit and vegetable consumption in detail among adolescents.Objective:The aim of the study was to describe the consumption of fruit and vegetables among Swedish adolescents, as well as identify factors associated with adolescents’ fruit and vegetables consumption. The aim was also to compare the consumption measured by two different methods.Methods:Riksmaten Adolescents 2016-17 was a Swedish dietary survey, where students in grade 5, 8 and 11 were recruited in a school based cross-sectional study. The survey included a validated, web-based dietary assessment method, RiksmatenFlex, as well as questionnaires. In this study 3099 participants were included, whom had dietary intake assessed by two retrospective 24 hour recall registrations in RiksmatenFlex. The differences in consumption between gender and school year were analyzed. Regression models were used to analyze associations between consumption and sociodemographic factors. Spearman correlations were used to analyze registered consumption and frequencies of fruit and vegetables intake. Contribution of vegetables from different meal types on weekdays was analyzed in a sub-sample of 2951 participants.Results:The median consumption of fruit and vegetables was 49 g and 125 g per day. Girls reported more fruit (63 g) than boys (22 g) per day (p<0.001). Girls also reported more vegetables than boys in energy adjusted amounts (p<0.001). Adolescents with university-educated parents reported more fruit (20 g; p<0.001) and more vegetables (20 g; p<0.001) than adolescents with parents without university education. In multivariate regression models, higher fruit consumption was statistically significant associated with university educated parents (19 g; p<0.001), higher energy intake and girls (R2=5%). Higher vegetables consumption was significantly associated with university educated parents (18 g; p<0.001), higher energy intake, higher age, girls and adolescents born outside of Sweden (R2=11%). Frequency’s of fruit and vegetables was significantly correlated with registered consumption of fruit (r=0.39) and vegetables (r=0.29). During weekdays, lunch (79 g) and dinner (85 g) were main contributors of vegetable consumption; dinner contributed the most (p=0.0005).Conclusion:Adolescents in Sweden need to increase their consumption of fruit and vegetables to ensure the ability to achieve nutritional recommendations, to improve their health. Differences in consumption between sociodemographic groups should be highlighted in public health. More knowledge is required to enable changes towards equal health.
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