Energieffektivisering i ett reningsverk för skogsindustriellt avloppsvatten genom förfällning av extraktivämnen

Detta är en M1-uppsats från Karlstads universitet/Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap


Pulp- and papermills expend vast amounts of water in order to produce pulp, paper and cardboard. Hence, they alsocreate vast amounts of waste water which has to be cleaned before it can be released into the receiving body of water. Insuch a wastewater treatment plant, tremendous amounts of energy are expended by the aeration in the biologicalcleaning process. This aeration is necessary to supply the microorganisms that shall decompose organic material withoxygen, which they need for their metabolism. The transfer of oxygen from the gas phase to the liquid phase isprimarily inhibited by surface-active substances in the waste water like resin acids or fatty acids. The purpose of thisthesis has been to determine if the surface-active substances can be removed by means of chemical pre-precipitationbefore the waste water enters the biological cleaning step. Thus, the efficiency of the aeration shall be improved.In the laboratory, aeration tests were performed for plain water, water with added surface-active substances and CTMPwastewaterfrom Stora Enso Skoghalls Bruk. The test for water with added surface-active substances showed clearlythat these substances have a big influence on the aeration efficiency, which was impaired considerably compared withplain water.In order to determine how chemical precipitation influences the content of surface-active substances, screening trialswere performed with the CTMP waste water. The concentration of surface-active substances was estimated bymeasuring the surface tension of the waste water. The surface tension sinks with increasing concentration of thesesubstances. 250 ml CTMP-wastewater was precipitated with three different chemicals: PAX-XL60, PGA and AVR. Inorder to determine the optimal dosing as well as the optimal pH-value for goal-oriented precipitation of the surfaceactivesubstances, the precipitation was performed with different pH-values between 4 and 8 as well as for differentdoses of the precipitation chemicals. It was discovered that the optimal pH-value for precipitation with PAX-XL60 is7,5 while the precipitation with PGA had the optimal pH-value of 6. The optimal dosage for PAX-XL60 was 10 g/cm3,while the optimal dosage for PGA could not be determined because of the small waste water volume used in thescreening trials. The screening trials showed that the surface tension increased after precipitation with both PAX-XL60and PGA which leads to the assessment that the concentration of surface-active substances has decreased.Precipiation- and aeration trials in big lab-scale were performed at pH 7,5 and the optimal dosage of PAX-XL60. ForPGA, the precipitation and aeration trials were performed at pH 6 and the lowest dosage of the screening trials. Theaeration trials showed that precipitated CTMP-wastewater could be aerated more energy efficient than the samewastewater without precipitation.Calculations showed that energy costs can be reduced by nearly 90% by using the tested precipitation chemical PAXXL60respectively nearly 65% by using the tested precipitation chemical PGA according to the lab-scale trials. Thecosts for the chemicals are not included.

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