Distortions of Press Quenched Crown Wheels

Detta är en Master-uppsats från KTH/Materialvetenskap


Scania has experienced difficulties with large variations of the slope of the back plane after press quenching of case hardened crown wheels of especially type R780 Steg supplied from ingot cast material. This leads to that a large number of crown wheels has to be remeasured and sorted according to back slope which is time consuming for operators. Also, after sorting of the crown wheels, hard machining has to be adjusted according to the different slopes of the back plane of the crown wheels. In some cases, it also leads to scrapping of the crown wheels.This master’s thesis was divided in two parts. The aim of the first part was to confirm that the crown wheel type and casting technique that exhibits the largest variations in slope of the back plane is the R780 Steg originating from ingot cast material. The crown wheel types that were compared were the R780 Steg, R780 Slät and R885 Slät. Crown wheels manufactured from ingot cast material and from continuous cast material were compared. Hence, 6 combinations were examined. The slope of the back plane was measured with the measuring probe FARO after press quenching. The slope of the crown wheels was found to depend on both casting technique and the geometry of the crown wheel. The results confirmed that the crown wheel type and supplier combination that by far yields the largest variations in slope of the back plane is the R780 Steg supplied by Steel Plant A who uses the ingot casting technique. For this combination the variation exceeds 0,1 mm. All other combinations of crown wheels and suppliers yield acceptable variations.The second part of this master’s thesis was composed of determining if segregations in the cast ingot are the cause of the variations in slope of the back plane of the crown wheel type R780 Steg. This was done by measuring if there is a correlation between the slope of the back plane of the crown wheel after press quenching, the chemical composition and the original position of the crown wheel in the ingot. As in the first part of the study, the distortion was measured by the measuring probe FARO. The samples were sent to Degerfors Laboratorium for chemical analysis. Analyses of C, S and N were made by using combustion analyses. For As, P, B and Al optic spectrometry (spark) was used. All other elements were analysed by x-ray fluorescence. Segregations were found to be present and in combination with the geometry of R780 Steg to be the cause of the large variations in slope of the crown wheels.The results of this thesis show that, for the crown wheel type R780 Steg, Scania should not use suppliers that employ the ingot casting technique. Instead, only suppliers using the continuous casting technique should be used. However, for the other crown wheel types ingot or continuously cast material can be used.

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