Barriers to Near-miss Reporting in the Maritime Domain
Sammanfattning: The catastrophic accident of the ferry Herald of Free Enterprise made it clear that the development of accident prevention in the maritime domain must not only rely on negative events but rather on proactive measures.Near-miss reporting is becoming widespread as a proactive tool for accident prevention in various domains. This thesis aims to examine and identify barriers to near-miss reporting through studying the national reporting system INSJÖ and local company specific systems in the Swedish maritime domain.Interviews with representatives from Swedish shipping companies (designated persons responsible for safety work in each company and officers responsible for the reporting at sea) were conducted as a means of data collection. Based on the data two separate analyses were made; one in a naturalistic fashion and one using a framework of barriers and incentives derived from various social technical domains in which near-miss reporting has been institutionalized.The results of the two analyses highlight differences regarding how and with whom information should be shared. The therapeutic factor, to teach and learn from others was emphasized as important by the majority of the interviewees. Further, potential external influences, issues concerning anonymity and the risk of rehearsed benefits of reporting are also made visible. Finally, critique against the accident-ratio models, that introduced the near-miss concept, is presented and it is argued that these models might be too simplistic to explain why accidents occur.It is concluded that, in order to create effective reporting systems and to decrease the risk of creating a disparity between rehearsed benefits and how the system is used in reality, it is important to give the personnel ownership of their own reporting system and the knowledge of how and why to use it. Nevertheless, near-miss reporting might be used as a powerful tool and incentive for proactive work and accident prevention.
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