Evaluation of quantification methods for inclusion distribution in clean steel

Detta är en Master-uppsats från KTH/Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM)

Sammanfattning: Ovako products are in many cases used in high fatigue applications. Currently Ovako use ultrasonic evaluation at 10 MHz as a volumetric method for inclusion control. This study intends to investigate two new methods for quantification of micro inclusions.The aim of this study is to develop a method for large area scanning by creating a polishing method that allows you to polish away a specified amount of material, in this case 60 μm. This method will be used to capture the true distribution of critically sized non-metallic inclusions by creating a 3D image out of several 2D scans from the light optical microscope. These results will be compared to the results of high frequency ultrasonic testing at 125 MHz to get a quantitative idea of what can be captured by the high frequency ultrasonic investigation.Two different steel grades were studied, named Grade A and Grade B, with one sample of each. Both grades have similar composition, except that Grade B contains more sulphur. Both grades are of approximately the same hardness. The two steel samples were scanned with a scanning acoustic microscope at the same time as a method to polish away 60 μm was developed. After this, the method was used to scan several layers with an image recognition program in the light optical microscope. The results from both methods were then compared.After testing, it was concluded that the inclusion distribution pattern was completely different for the two steel grades, however the same pattern could be seen for each grade in the LOM and in the ultrasonic. This indicates that the same types of inclusions could be found. It was also found that the ultrasonic enlarges the indications by a severe amount making it hard to take any measurements directly from the ultrasonic images in this study. What is possible to see in the ultrasonic images are the distribution of inclusions and the inclusion placement in the sample. A result of 10 % matching inclusions between both methods is found, which is to say that the same 50 inclusions out of the 500 largest indications from each method in the steel sample is found. These 10 % is however not sufficient enough to conclude by how much the ultrasonic enlarges the indications compared to the light optical microscope.

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