Practical implementation of Bio-CCS in Uppsala : A techno-economic assessment
Sammanfattning: To decrease global warming, bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (Bio-CCS) has been proposed as an effective and necessary tool. Combusting biomass and capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the same process results in net negative emissions, hence, reducing the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. The infrastructure around heat and power generation in Sweden has transformed to make use of biomass and waste. Bio-CCS has the potential to be a key factor in making the heat sector carbon negative and the Swedish energy system more sustainable. This study has assessed how Bio-CCS can practically be implemented in the Uppsala heat and power plant. In the assessment, three chemical absorption post-combustion carbon capture (CC) technologies were evaluated based on energy requirement, potential to reduce emissions and economics. They are the amine process, the chilled ammonia process (CAP) and the hot potassium carbonate process (HPC). The process of each technology was modelled by performing mass and energy balance calculations when implementing CC on the flue gas streams of the production units using biomass-based fuel at the plant. The modelling enabled finding specific heating, cooling and electricity requirements of the technologies. With this data it was possible to assess the potential emission reduction and CC cost for the different configurations assessed. A solution was proposed in how a CC technology can be integrated into the system of the Uppsala plant regarding land footprint, available heat supply to the process and possibilities for waste heat recovery. If heat recovery is not utilized the results show that the amine process is the most cost-effective technology when implemented on the flue gas stream of the waste blocks. When utilizing heat recovery to use waste heat to heat the district heating water, CAP becomes more cost-effective than the amine process. Further improvements can be achieved by combining flue gas streams of the waste blocks to increase the number of hours per year CC can be performed. The plant in Uppsala can then capture 200 000 tonne CO2 annually. The total cost of Bio-CCS will be approximately 900 SEK per tonne CO2 captured.
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