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Sammanfattning: Background: Many critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) suffer from threatening or manifest organ failure which puts them at risk of death. Respiratory insufficiency is the most common organ failure. These patient’s ability to change body position is reduced due to sedation and disease which makes the patient dependent to the ICU nurse responsible for the patients change of body position to avoid complications. Hypoxemic patients can be positioned in a prone position in addition to mechanical ventilation to improve oxygen saturation, reducing mortality. The position is related to a risk of complications. With the increased use of prone positioning of late there is a need for new knowledge about related complications so that these can be addressed preventively and thereby increase patient safety.Aim: To identify and summarize the research of the past ten years regarding patient-related complications associated with prone positioning of patients with critical illness.Design and method: A systematic literature review of relevant scientific journal articles was performed. Data was analyzed using content analysis.Results: 18 quantitative articles including 1580 critically ill patients in prone position were analyzed. The analysis resulted in four categories, The body surface, Breathing related complications, Hemodynamic instability and Abdominal complications, with ten subcategories. Patients were affected by several different complications, the three most common were pressure ulcers, ventilatory complications and ventilator associated pneumonia. A total of 993 separate complications occurred among the 1580 critically ill patients in prone position.Conclusion: Critically ill patients are at risk of several different complications when being cared for, or having been cared for, in prone position. The identified complications affect different body parts but pressure ulcers in the skin and complications related to the respiration are the most common.

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