Modern Slavery in Southeast Asia : Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Burmese Victims of Trafficking in Persons, Yangon, Myanmar
Sammanfattning: Purpose: The overarching purpose of this research paper is to broaden the understanding of the rehabilitation and reintegration of trafficking victims by illustrating and explaining common rehabilitation and reintegration processes of Burmese trafficking victims, girls and women, in Yangon, Myanmar. As part of that overarching purpose, this paper also aims to analyse how and if the victims’ human rights are being properly upheld. The paper highlights the problem of the state’s actions of upholding human security and the right to possess protection against modern slavery, with specific focus on trafficked girls or women as right holders and the state (in this case Myanmar) together with non-state responsibility-holders as duty bearers. Method: The paper is based on data derived from a field study, with the empirical material gathered through walk-along at a trafficking shelter and semi-structured interviews with several NGOs, IGOs and other actors and in Yangon, Myanmar. Analysis: In Myanmar there is a lack of shelter space and not enough focus on the long-lasting impact of trauma in a trafficked person's life. A majority of trafficking victims that escape from trafficking situations are placed in shelters operated by the Department of Social Welfare (DSW-shelters) for a few days before being repatriated to their families and/or home community. This method, i.e., the repatriation of victims to their respective home community, is cost efficient, but not always in the best interest of the victims as it increases the risk of re-trafficking. Some victims are offered help from reintegration programs where vocational training is a common component, but little other effort is made to rehabilitate the victim from their psychological trauma. Many victims that seek restorative justice within the court system do not enjoy a fair trial, as procedures are unclear, and corruption is common amongst both judges and prosecutors. The lack of restorative justice is another factor that hinders the victims rehabilitating from their trauma as it decreases the chance to fully reintegrating the victims into society on a long-term basis. Finally, the enforcement of anti-trafficking laws is weakened by the fact that the Myanmar Anti-Trafficking Police Force is understaffed, undereducated and overworked.
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