Aktörers roller för att möta utmaningar vid utveckling av industriella och sociala symbiosnätverk : En fallstudie i Sotenäs kommun
Sammanfattning: Most of the environmental challenges the communities have faced depend on the increasing population and human activity, especially of the industrial development and the growth of industrial parks. There is a need to develop industrial parks in a way that contributes to minimal environmental impact, economic prosperity as well as local and regional sustainability. One challenge is to use their large amounts of underutilized resources. This can be achieved by creating circular models and coordinating resource exchanges in an industrial and social symbiosis. Industrial symbiosis means that actors collaborate through sharing of resources for collective benefits. In a social symbiosis the human resources and competences are strengthened, in parallel as the industrial symbiosis is assured. Previous studies highlight that there is a need for a better understanding of how symbiosis networks can develop and what role different actors should take. An interesting case to study in this context is the municipality of Sotenäs, where symbiosis development started 2011 and a Centre of Symbiosis under municipal management was established in 2015. The aim of the study is to identify key functions for successful symbiosis development. The aim is also to analyze the roles of different actors, in order to meet challenges in the development, through a qualitative case study in Sotenäs. In order to answer the purpose of the thesis, a literature study was initially conducted to investigate the key factors for developing symbiosis networks and the roles of different actors. Furthermore, an interview study was carried out with several actors involved in, or are a part of, the development of the Symbiosis network in Sotenäs municipality. The actors in the study are companies involved in the Symbiosis network, knowledge institutions, financiers, Sotenäs municipality and employers at the Centre of Symbiosis. The literature study was then used together with the empirical study for analysis and discussion. The results show that approaches aiming to increase the actor’s internal capacity and engagement in collective actions are needed to develop symbiosis networks. Here, communication has proven to be most crucial. Having that said, all actors should communicate the benefits that symbiotic collaborations both internally and externally to contribute to the anchoring process as well as understanding and increasing knowledge of the subject. The conclusions from the study are that the municipality have a particularly important role in coordinating and conducting symbiosis development activities. They are an actor that remains in the long term, possesses many different functions and invests in the social benefits. Coordination bodies have an important role to play in shaping long term symbiosis activities. They should act as facilitator, catalyst and coordinator to promote symbiosis development, as well as together with other actors, to continuously support companies and conduct development projects. Companies are expected to engage in the activities they benefit from. By understanding the benefits of symbiosis activities, they can free internal resources and include symbiosis activities in their organization as functions, which would benefit both the companies themselves as well as the symbiosis networks. Knowledge institutions are particularly important during the initial stage of symbiosis development. These are expected to transfer knowledge and experience to companies and municipalities in order to engage, as well as contribute with expertise to develop and improve symbiosis networks. Financiers enable development with capital. They should be responsive, pay attention to the benefits of the society, contribute with their contacts as well as create conditions that promote symbiosis development. Finally, the study has further investigated how identified key functions for symbiosis development, based on the case study together with the analysis of the roles of different actors, can contribute with inspiration, reduce the lead time and facilitate the development of symbiosis networks. Depending on the type of symbiosis development (self-organized, facilitated or planned), and the geographical location and therefore the social structure and organization of the region, the local conditions are different. New business establishments with planned symbiotic collaborations differs in comparison to when symbiosis development takes place with already established companies. In this case, the symbiosis development is planned and self-organized, which means that the development process is faster, and that participation and interest of the companies already exists. The results of this study also state the importance of regular and specific dialogues among actors for continued engagement and participation, where synergies and social benefits are clearly communicated.
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