Utvärdering av två markbaserade dagvattenreningssystem
Stormwater is a source of pollution to water bodies but can also cause flooding. To treat stomwater locally is an issue of emerging importance due to a changing climate with an increased frequency of heavy rains, but also as a result of more strict guidelines concerning pollution to water bodies. Densification of cities is also a contributing factor. Several methods for sustainable stormwater treatment are used today but the state of knowledge regarding function and capacity is in need of improvement.
This thesis aimed to evaluate two ground-based stormwater treatment methods, a filter strip and a retention tank. This was done through both literature review and field studies. The field study of the retention tank was limited due to insufficient outflow volumes from the tank. Oil from the filter strip was sampled and analysed for the heavy metals arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). According to the study, the filter strip had an elevated concentration of metals in the first 20 meters. Of the total load of heavy metals 20 % of As, 21 % of Cr, 4 % of Cu, 23 % of Ni, 16 % of Pb and 19 % of Zn was retained in the strip. The remaining portion of the heavy metals was assumed to settle in the level spreader before the filter strip or transported past the filter strip. Potential leachability for the metals was analysed with two types of extraction solutions, 1 mM CaCl2 and 0.1 M HNO3. The leaching potential for the studied metals was relatively low, averaging 31% of geochemically active metals. Obtained Kd -values showed the lowest mobility for Pb and Co and the largest mobility for As and Ni. Retrieved mobility for arsenic may be overrated when HNO3 is inefficient for extraction of arsenic. Zinc and cobolt were the limiting metals that can first exceed the limits for sensitive land use; however, this is expected to take place after about 50-60 years.
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